Volume 11, Issue 11 3419
Open Access

Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for manganese

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

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First published: 04 November 2013
Citations: 61
Panel members: Carlo Agostoni, Roberto Berni Canani, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marina Heinonen, Hannu Korhonen, Sébastien La Vieille, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Androniki Naska, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Grażyna Nowicka, Yolanda Sanz, Alfonso Siani, Anders Sjödin, Martin Stern, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé, Dominique Turck and Hans Verhagen
Correspondence: [email protected]
Acknowledgement: The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Dietary Reference Values for minerals: Carlo Agostoni, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marianne Geleijnse, Michael Hambidge, Ambroise Martin, Androniki Naska, Hildegard Przyrembel, Alfonso Siani, and Hans Verhagen for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and EFSA staff: Anja Brönstrup for the support provided to this scientific opinion.
Adoption date: 10 October 2013
Published date: 4 November 2013
Question number: EFSA-Q-2011-01216
On request from: European Commission


Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for manganese. Manganese is an essential dietary mineral which is a component of a number of metalloenzymes involved in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A specific manganese deficiency syndrome has not been described in humans. The body is able to adapt to a wide range of manganese intakes by regulating both efficiency of absorption in the intestine and the quantity excreted via bile. There are no reliable and validated biomarkers of manganese intake or status and data on manganese intakes versus health outcomes are not available for DRVs for manganese. As there is insufficient evidence available to derive an average requirement or a population reference intake, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed. Mean intakes of manganese in adults in the EU are around 3 mg/day. In addition, null or positive balances have consistently been observed with intakes of manganese above 2.5 mg/day. An AI of 3 mg/day is proposed for adults, including pregnant and lactating women. For infants aged from 7 to 11 months, an AI of 0.02-0.5 mg/day is proposed, which reflects the wide range of manganese intakes that appear to be adequate for this age group. The AI for children and adolescents is based on extrapolation from the adult AI using isometric scaling and reference body weights of the respective age groups.