Volume 22, Issue 1 e8544
SCIENTIFIC OPINION
Open Access

Commodity risk assessment of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. unrooted cuttings from Guatemala

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

Corresponding Author

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

Correspondence:[email protected]Search for more papers by this author
Claude BragardPaula BaptistaElisavet Chatzivassiliou

Elisavet Chatzivassiliou

Search for more papers by this author
Francesco Di SerioPaolo GonthierJosep Anton Jaques Miret

Josep Anton Jaques Miret

Search for more papers by this author
Annemarie Fejer Justesen

Annemarie Fejer Justesen

Search for more papers by this author
Alan MacLeodChrister Sven MagnussonPanagiotis MilonasJuan A. Navas-CortesStephen ParnellPhilippe Lucien Reignault

Philippe Lucien Reignault

Search for more papers by this author
Emilio StefaniHans-Hermann ThulkeWopke Van der WerfAntonio Vicent CiveraJonathan YuenLucia ZappalàOlaf Mosbach SchulzParaskevi KariampaRaghavendra Reddy MandaAlemu SelamAntigoni AkrivouSpyridon AntonatosDespoina BerisJane DebodeChristos KritikosMaria KormpiChristophe LacommeCharles ManceauDimitrios PapachristosChrysavgi ReppaCiro GardiRoel Potting
First published: 25 January 2024
Adopted: 15 December 2023
Amended: 16 February 2024

Abstract

The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to evaluate the probability of entry of pests (likelihood of pest freedom at entry), including both, regulated and non-regulated pests, associated with unrooted cuttings of the genera Petunia and Calibrachoa produced under physical isolation in Guatemala. The relevance of any pest for this opinion was based on evidence following defined criteria, based on the methodology used for high-risk plants adapted for the specificity of this assessment. Nineteen EU regulated pests (Bemisia tabaci, pepper golden mosaic virus, pepper huasteco yellow vein virus, tomato severe leaf curl virus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus, tomato spotted wilt virus, Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae, Liriomyza trifolii, Bactericera cockerelli, Eotetranychus lewisi, Epitrix subcrinita, Epitrix cucumeris, Helicoverpa zea, Chloridea virescens, Spodoptera ornithogalli, Ralstonia solanacearum, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum, Xanthomonas vesicatoria) and one EU non-regulated (Phenacoccus solenopsis) pest fulfilled all relevant criteria and were selected for further evaluation. For these pests, the risk mitigation measures proposed in the technical dossier from Guatemala were evaluated taking into account the possible limiting factors, and an expert judgement is given on the likelihood of pest freedom taking into consideration the risk mitigation measures acting on the pest, including uncertainties associated with the assessment. The limited and partially conflicting information provided in the dossier contributes to the wide estimates of pest freedom. The estimated degree of pest freedom varies among the pests evaluated, with Ralstonia spp. (R. solanacearum and R. pseudosolanacearum) being the pest most frequently expected on the imported cuttings. The expert knowledge elicitation indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9916 and 10,000 bags containing unrooted cuttings per 10,000 would be free of Ralstonia spp.

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background and Terms of Reference as provided by European Commission

1.1.1 Background

The introduction of plants for planting of Solanaceae other than seeds into the European Union (EU) is prohibited from certain origins, including the countries that have requested this derogation, as they are listed in point 18 of Annex VI to Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. In August 2021, Germany sent a request for derogation to import unrooted cuttings of Petunia and Calibrachoa produced under physical isolation in Costa Rica, Kenya and Uganda, accompanied by an application describing the production methods and the pests associated with the plants in the different third countries. A similar request has also been received from Guatemala, accompanied by a technical dossier. In support of the request, the dossier prepared by Germany and Guatemala, with the identified pests and the details of the growing conditions are submitted.

1.1.2 Terms of Reference

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is requested, pursuant to Article 29 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, to provide scientific opinion(s) on the field of plant health.

In particular, EFSA is requested to assess the probability of entry of pests (likelihood of pest freedom at entry), including both, regulated (Union quarantine pests, protected zone pests, and regulated non-quarantine pests (RNQPs)) and non-regulated pests, associated with unrooted cuttings of the genera Petunia and Calibrachoa produced under physical isolation in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Kenya and Uganda.

The assessment shall include all pests present in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Kenya and Uganda that could be associated with the unrooted cuttings of the genera Petunia and Calibrachoa produced under physical isolation and could have an impact if they are introduced into the EU.

In this assessment, EFSA shall take into account the available scientific information, and in particular the scientific and technical information provided in the dossiers by Germany and Guatemala. If necessary to complete its assessment, EFSA may ask additional scientific and technical information or clarifications (e.g. regarding pests status, pests control, production sites and systems, processing and shipping) on unrooted cuttings of the genera Petunia and Calibrachoa produced under physical isolation in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Kenya and Uganda. Such information can be requested by EFSA to the National Plant Protection Organisations (NPPO's) of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Kenya, Uganda or Germany as appropriate. Following the provision of such information, EFSA shall proceed with the assessment.

1.2 Interpretation of the Terms of Reference

This opinion refers only to the Guatemala dossier. The EFSA Panel on Plant Health (hereafter referred to as ‘the Panel’) conducted a commodity risk assessment of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. unrooted cuttings from Guatemala following the Guidance on commodity risk assessment for the evaluation of high-risk plant dossiers (EFSA PLH Panel, 2019), taking into account the available scientific information, including the technical information provided by Guatemala.

Following an exchange with European Commission (EC), the Panel was requested to broaden the scope of the assessment to Solanaceae host plants and to include RNQP species if they are relevant.

The EU quarantine pests that are regulated as a group in the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 were considered and evaluated separately at species level.

In its evaluation the Panel:
  • Checked whether the information in the technical dossier (hereafter referred to as ‘the Dossier’) provided by the applicant (Department of Epidemiological Surveillance and Risk Analysis of the Plant Health Directorate, Vice Ministry of Agricultural Health and Regulations, Minsitry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food, Republic of Guatemala) was sufficient to conduct a commodity risk assessment. When necessary, additional information was requested from the applicant.
  • Considered the host status of Petunia and Calibrachoa as identical because they are very closely related genera.
  • Selected the relevant Union quarantine pests (as specified in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072,1 hereafter referred to as ‘EU quarantine pests’), and the Regulated Non-Quarantine Pests regulated for Petunia, Calibrachoa or for solanaceous crops and potentially associated with unrooted cuttings of the commodity species (Petunia and/or Calibrachoa), or to major solanaceous crops (tomato, pepper, potato and cultivated tobacco).
  • Included in the assessment, pests with host plant records for Petunia and/or Calibrachoa, as well as polyphagous pests with major solanaceous crops (tomato, pepper, potato and cultivated tobacco) and that were considered based, on expert judgement, likely to use Petunia and/or Calibrachoa as a host plant.
  • Assessed the effectiveness of the measures described in the dossier for the selected relevant pests.
  • The risk assessment and its conclusions are based on the information provided in the submitted technical dossier (specific place and procedure of production) and refer to the production sites described in the same document.
  • Risk management decisions are not within EFSA's remit. Therefore, the Panel provided a rating based on expert judgement regarding the likelihood of pest freedom for each relevant pest given the risk mitigation measures proposed by the NPPO of Guatemala.

2 DATA AND METHODOLOGIES

2.1 Data provided by the NPPO of Guatemala

The Panel considered all the data and information in the Dossier provided by the NPPO of Guatemala, received from the EC on 28 February 2022. Additional information was provided by NPPO of Guatemala upon requests from EFSA, on 3 October 2022, on 14 February 2023, on 27 July 2023 and on 30 November 2023. The Dossier is managed by EFSA.

The structure and overview of the Dossier is shown in Table 1. The number of the relevant section is indicated in the opinion when referring to a specific part of the Dossier.

TABLE 1. Structure and overview of the Dossier.
Dossier section Overview of contents Filename
1.0 Technical dossier on Petunia and Calibrachoa EFSA_Dossier - Q-2022-00238_Guatemala_Petunia & Calibrachoa.docx
2.0 Answers to request of additional information on Petunia and Calibrachoa Annex 1 Union Europea-ingles_october 2022.pdf
3.0 Table with status of Petunia and Calibrachoa pests in Guatemala Listado de plagas requeridas de plagas para EFSA.pdf
4.0 Additional information on immunological tests and test performed for checking the presence of viruses oficio jhd-723-2023_letter_July.pdf
5.0 Additional information on the propagation material, production cycle and on the status of specific pests oficio jhd-1177-2023 english_001.pdf

The data and supporting information provided by the NPPO of Guatemala formed the basis of the commodity risk assessment.

The databases shown in Table 2 and the resources and references listed below are the main sources used by the NPPO of Guatemala to compile the Dossier (details on literature searches can be found in the Dossier Section 4.0).

TABLE 2. Database sources used in the literature searches by NPPO of Guatemala.
Acronym/short title Database name and service provider URL of database Justification for choosing database
CABI CPC CABI Crop Protection Compendium https://www.cabi.org/cpc/ Internationally recognised database
EPPO GD

EPPO Global Database

Provider: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

https://gd.eppo.int/ Internationally recognised database

Other resources used by the NPPO of Guatemala

Beck, H., Zimmermann, N. E., McVicar, T. R., Vergopolan, N., Berg, A., & & Wood, E. F. (2018, November 6). ‘Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution’. Nature Scientific Data. doi: 10.1038/sdata.20181814.

Google Earth. (2018).

Peel, M. C., Mcmahon, T., & Finlayson, B. L. (2007, October 11). Update World map of the.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11, 1633–1644. doi: 10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007

Interviews and information provided by FIDES farm staff (ORANGE-DUMMEN) on the production areas.

Interviews and information provided by DANZINGER farm staff about the production areas.

2.2 Literature searches performed by EFSA

Literature searches were undertaken by EFSA to complete a list of pests potentially associated with Petunia and Calibrachoa. Two searches were combined: (i) a general search to identify pests of Petunia and Calibrachoa in different databases and (ii) a tailored search to identify whether these pests are present or not in Guatemala and the EU. The searches were run between 30 May 2022 and 11 June 2022. No language, date or document type restrictions were applied in the search strategy. The Panel used the databases indicated in Table 3 to compile the list of pests associated with Petunia and Calibrachoa. As for Web of Science, the literature search was performed using a specific, ad hoc established search string (see Appendix B). The string was run in ‘All Databases’ with no range limits for time or language filters. This is further explained in Section 9 pest list from Benaki Phytopathological Institute (BPI).

TABLE 3. Databases used by EFSA for the compilation of the pest list associated to the genus Petunia and Calibrachoa.
Database Platform/link
Aphids on World Plants https://www.aphidsonworldsplants.info/C_HOSTS_AAIntro.htm
CABI Crop Protection Compendium https://www.cabi.org/cpc/
Database of Insects and their Food Plants https://www.brc.ac.uk/dbif/hosts.aspx
Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants https://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/data/hostplants/search/index.dsml
EPPO Global Database https://gd.eppo.int/
Leaf-miners https://www.leafmines.co.uk/html/plants.htm
Nemaplex https://nemaplex.ucdavis.edu/Nemabase2010/PlantNematodeHostStatusDDQuery.aspx
Plant Viruses Online https://bio-mirror.im.ac.cn/mirrors/pvo/vide/famindex.htm
International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) - Master Species List 2021 (v3) https://talk.ictvonline.org/files/master-species-lists/m/msl/9601
Scalenet https://scalenet.info/associates/
Spider Mites Web https://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/spmweb/advanced.php
USDA ARS Fungi Database https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/fungushost/fungushost.cfm
Index Fungorum https://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp
Mycobank https://www.mycobank.com

Web of Science: All Databases (Web of Science Core Collection, CABI: CAB Abstracts, BIOSIS Citation Index, Chinese Science Citation Database, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index

FSTA, KCI-Korean Journal Database, Russian Science Citation Index, MEDLINE

SciELO Citation Index, Zoological Record)

https://www.webofknowledge.com
World Agroforestry https://www.worldagroforestry.org/treedb2/speciesprofile.php?Spid=1749
Catalog of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of the world https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/80420580/Gagne_2014_World_Cecidomyiidae_Catalog_3rd_Edition.pdf
Catalog of the Eriophoidea (Acarina: Prostigmata) of the world. https://www.cabi.org/isc/abstract/19951100613
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) https://www.gbif.org/

Additional searches, limited to retrieve documents, were run when developing the opinion. The available scientific information, including previous EFSA opinions on the relevant pests and diseases (see pest data sheets in Appendix A) and the relevant literature and legislation (e.g. Regulation (EU) 2016/2031; Commission Implementing Regulations (EU) 2018/2019; (EU) 2018/2018 and (EU) 2019/2072) were taken into account.

2.3 Methodology

When developing the opinion, the Panel followed the EFSA Guidance on commodity risk assessment for the evaluation of high-risk plant dossiers (EFSA PLH Panel, 2019).

In the first step, pests potentially associated with the commodity in the country of origin (EU regulated pests and other pests) that may require risk mitigation measures were identified. The EU non-regulated pests not known to occur in the EU were selected based on evidence of their potential impact in the EU. After the first step, all the relevant pests that may need risk mitigation measures were identified.

In the second step, the proposed risk mitigation measures for each relevant pest were evaluated in terms of efficacy or compliance with EU requirements as explained in Section 4.

A conclusion on the likelihood of the commodity being free from each of the relevant pest was determined and uncertainties identified using expert judgements.

Pest freedom was assessed by estimating the number of bags containing infested/infected unrooted cuttings out of 10,000 exported bags. Each bag contains between 25 and 80 unrooted cuttings.

The information provided in some sections of the Opinion are the result of the Panel interpretation of the text of the applicant Dossier.

2.3.1 Commodity data

Based on the information provided by the NPPO of Guatemala the characteristics of the commodity are summarised in Section 14.

2.3.2 Identification of pests potentially associated with the commodity

To evaluate the pest risk associated with the importation of the commodity from Guatemala, a pest list was compiled. The pest list is a compilation of all identified plant pests reported to be associated with all species of Petunia and Calibrachoa, and the polyphagous pests associated to major Solanaceae crops based on information provided in the Dossier Sections 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and on searches performed by the Panel. The search strategy and search syntax were adapted to each of the databases listed in Table 3, according to the options and functionalities of the different databases and CABI keyword thesaurus.

The pest list (see Microsoft Excel® file in Appendix D) is a document that includes pests that use the host plant at a genus level (Petunia and Calibrachoa) and at family level (Solanaceae), retrieved from EPPO Global Database, CABI Crop Protection Compendium, other databases and literature searches.

Plants of Petunia are widely used in plant virology as experimental hosts. Therefore, many if not most available data concerning host status for plant viruses refer to laboratory tests in which Petunia is reported either as local host where the virus is restricted to the inoculated leaf via cell to cell movement or systemic host, where the virus spreads from the inoculated leaf to other parts of the plant via systemic/phloem movement. In this assessment, viruses recorded to infect Petunia or Calibrachoa naturally were included for further evaluation. Viruses that are reported to infect Petunia or Calibrachoa experimentally were included for further evaluation if (i) they infect Petunia or Calibrachoa systemically or (ii) they infect Petunia or Calibrachoa locally, and their biology (e.g. highly contagious viruses) or transmission mode/epidemiology (e.g. spread via mechanical spread in the field) would allow Petunia to act as a virus source for further spread in the field.

The notifications of interceptions of EU member states were consulted for the years 2009 to 2023 (EUROPHYT, online, from 2009 to 2020 and TRACES-NT, online, from May 2020 to March 2023, Accessed: 27/5/2023). To check whether Petunia and Calibrachoa can act as a pathway, all notifications (all origins) for Petunia and Calibrachoa were evaluated. It should be noted that the import of Petunia and Calibrachoa from Guatemala is prohibited. For each selected pest it was checked if there were notification records for Guatemala (all commodities).

The evaluation of the compiled pest list was done in two steps: first, the relevance of the EU regulated pests was evaluated (Section 23); second, the relevance of any other plant pest was evaluated (Section 24).

Pests for which limited information was available on one or more criteria used to identify them as relevant for this Opinion, e.g. on potential impact, are listed in Appendix C (list of pests that can potentially cause an effect not further assessed).

The methodology used to establish pest presence depends in part on published literature. The limited number of publications from Guatemala can lead to an underestimation of the number of pests present, particularly for viruses. A limited number of pest specific surveys may increase the uncertainty of the pest status.

2.3.3 Listing and evaluation of risk mitigation measures

The proposed risk mitigation measures were listed and evaluated. When evaluating the likelihood of pest freedom at origin, the following types of potential infection/infestation sources for Petunia and Calibrachoa in nurseries and relevant risk mitigation measures were considered (see also Figure 1):
  • pest entry from surrounding areas,
  • pest entry with new plants/seeds,
  • pest spread within the nursery.
Details are in the caption following the image
Conceptual framework to assess likelihood that plants are exported free from relevant pests (Source: EFSA PLH Panel, 2019).

Information on the biology, estimates of likelihood of entry of the pest into the nursery and spread within the nursery, and the effect of the measures on a specific pest is summarised in pest data sheets compiled for each pest selected for further evaluation (see Appendix A).

2.3.4 Expert knowledge elicitation

To estimate the pest freedom of the commodities an expert knowledge elicitation (EKE) was performed following EFSA guidance (Annex B.8 of EFSA Scientific Committee, 2018).

The specific question for EKE was defined as follows: ‘Taking into account (i) the risk mitigation measures listed in the Dossier and (ii) other relevant information (reported in the specific pest datasheets), how many of 10,000 bags of Petunia and Calibrachoa unrooted cuttings will be infested with the relevant pest/pathogen when arriving in the EU?’

The risk assessment considers bags containing 25–80 unrooted cuttings each as the most suitable unit. The following reasoning is given:
  1. There is no quantitative information available regarding clustering of plants during production.
  2. For the pests under consideration a cross infestation between bags during transport is not likely.

Before the elicitation, the list of pests was screened to identify pests with similar characteristics, risks, host-pest interactions, management practices in the production system. Pests with similar characteristics were grouped for a common assessment.

The uncertainties associated with the EKE were taken into account and quantified in the probability distribution applying the semi-formal method described in section 3.5.2 of the EFSA-PLH Guidance on quantitative pest risk assessment (EFSA PLH Panel, 2018). Finally, the results were reported in terms of the likelihood of pest freedom. The lower 5% percentile of the uncertainty distribution reflects the opinion that pest freedom is with 95% certainty above this limit.

3 COMMODITY DATA

3.1 Description of the commodity

The commodities to be imported are unrooted cuttings (stem with leaves) of Petunia spp. (common name: petunia; family: Solanaceae) or Calibrachoa spp. (common name: calibrachoa, mini petunia; family: Solanaceae). The cuttings of Petunia spp. have four apical leaves developed, 2.5 cm length cuts, 1.0 cm length stem (Figure 2). The cuttings of Calibrachoa spp. have six leaves developed with growth point, 2.5 cm length cuts, 1.0 cm length stem (Figure 2).

Details are in the caption following the image
Petunia spp. cuttings (on the left) and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings (on the right) (Source: Dossier section 1.0 and 2.0).

The age of mother plants from which the cuttings are taken is a minimum of 3 months and a maximum of 10 months.

According to ISPM 36 (FAO, 2019) the commodity can be classified as ‘unrooted cuttings’.

3.2 Description of the production area

The Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. production sites are located in the village of Jocotillo, Villa Canales Municipality, Guatemala and Don Gregorio Village, Santa Rosa de Lima Municipality, Santa Rosa, Guatemala (Figures 3 and 4).

Details are in the caption following the image
Location of production areas in relation to the territory of Guatemala (on the left) and location of the greenhouses (on the right) (Source: Google maps).
Details are in the caption following the image
The two production areas of the Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings destined to the export to the EU (Source: Google maps).

3.3 Production and handling processes

3.3.1 Growing conditions

The production of unrooted cuttings takes place in screened greenhouses with thrips proof netting. The greenhouses have adjoining walls and have separated compartments to prevent the introduction and spread of pests (Figure 5). There are also double doors to enter the greenhouse.

Details are in the caption following the image
Greenhouse containment walls (Source: Dossier section 1.0, 2.0).

3.3.2 Source of planting material

Plant material used to produce unrooted cuttings of Petunia and Calibrachoa is imported from EU (Netherlands, Germany) and non-EU countries (Israel and El Salvador). Plant material from EU countries is certified with Naktuinbouw elite system https://www.naktuinbouw.com/inspections/erkenningen/elite. In a request for additional information concerning the certification systems of imported propagation material no useful information was provided by the NPPO of Guatemala on the possible testing regime for potential viruses. This lack of information was taken into account in the expressed uncertainties in the estimation of pest freedom level of the exported material. However, Guatemala requires a Phytosanitary Certificate of Export (CFE) for imports of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp.

3.3.3 Production cycle

The plants used for production are obtained from tissue culture material (in vitro) or unrooted cuttings. The age of the mother plants from which the cuttings are taken ranges from a minimum of 3 months to a maximum of 10 months. The production process for Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. crops is as follows: the basal ends of the cuttings are treated with auxins: cuttings are immersed for 5 seconds in a solution of 1500 ppm of indole-butyric acid. The cuttings are then planted into the horticultural substrate (sterilised pumice and peat, see below). One week after planting (‘seed-time’ as indicated in Table 4, is intended as planting time), the presence of roots is checked. Pruning is done on a weekly basis to promote vegetative growth of the plants. The beds are monitored weekly to observe if there are any damaged plants.

TABLE 4. Production cycle (45 weeks) of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings (Source: Dossier section 1.0 and 3.0).
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Phenological stage Production phase Break Seed-time Vegetative phase Production phase

In the dossier two production cycles are mentioned, lasting 45 weeks or 50 weeks. Only details of the 45 weeks cycle are provided in the dossier (Table 4).2

After the vegetative phase (August–September), plants keep growing and cuttings are harvested weekly (Table 4). During the production cycle strict hygienic and preventive measures are in place, such as disinfecting tools and protective clothing (Dossier section 3.0). During the production break growth beds and tools are disinfected (with chlorine 30,000 ppm) and the horticultural substrate with Metam-Sodium. Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses. Metam-Sodium is applied according to the label recommendation of the product which is calculated as 0.00292 litres/bag.

Rotation between solanaceous plants and other plant species is applied in the production sites.

3.3.4 Pest monitoring during production

The two companies producing Petunia and Calibrachoa unrooted cuttings for export have strict protocols in place for managing and mitigating risks of pest entry and spread.

The farms are monitored monthly by personnel of the Directorate of Plant Health of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food through the Comprehensive Program of Agricultural and Environmental Protection (PIPAA). The PIPAA programme verifies compliance with good agricultural practices and compliance with phytosanitary measures for products that are under the official programme. In addition to this, the farms have an internal surveillance procedure carried out at weekly basis, which consists of the inspection of the production beds and yellow sticky insect traps placed within the production areas.

Before export the final inspection is done by the Regional International Agency for Agricultural Health (OIRSA).

3.3.5 Post-harvest processes and export procedure

Once harvested, the unrooted cuttings of Petunia and Calibrachoa are placed in plastic bags (25 or 80 cuttings per bag) and transferred to cardboard boxes and stored in cold rooms (Table 5). The packed product is transported to the Air Express Customs in refrigerated containers at temperatures between 10°C and 12°C and sent by flight to the destination country always maintaining the cold chain.

TABLE 5. Number of cuttings per packing unit.
Product Large box capacity Small box capacity Room box capacity
Calibrachoa spp. 22,400 units per box (80 cuttings per bag) 11,200 units per box (80 cuttings per bag) 5600 units per box (80 cuttings per bag)
Petunia spp. 8400 units per box (25 cuttings per bag) 4200 units per box (25 cuttings per bag) 2100 units per box (25 cuttings per bag)

The estimated export volume for the EU is 110 million units (cuttings) throughout the year, having a peak during the months from December to April.

4 IDENTIFICATION OF PESTS POTENTIALLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMMODITY

The search for potential pests associated with unrooted cuttings of Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. resulted in 465 species (see Microsoft Excel® file in Appendix D).

4.1 Selection of relevant EU regulated pests associated with the commodity

The EU listing of Union quarantine pests and protected zone quarantine pests (Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072) is based on assessments concluding that the pests can enter, establish, spread and have potential impact in the EU.

Thirty eight EU regulated (QPs, RNQPs, emergency measures and PZ) species that are present in Guatemala and reported to use Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. were evaluated for their relevance of being included in this opinion (Table 6, Appendix D).

TABLE 6. Overview of the evaluation of the 38 EU regulated pests present in Guatemala (QPs, RNQPs, emergency measures and PZ) known to use solanaceous host plants or specifically Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. or for their relevance for this Opinion.
EPPO code Pest species Group EU-Q status RNQP info Petunia/Calibrachoa as host Conclusion
LIBEAS ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Bacteria A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Petunia as host unlikely
RALSPS Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Bacteria A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) Likely ACTIONABLE
RALSSL Ralstonia solanacearum Bacteria A2 Quarantine pest (Annex II B) Likely ACTIONABLE
LIBEPS ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' Bacteria RNQP (Annex IV) Solanum Uncertain Reserve list (host status)
XANTVE Xanthomonas vesicatoria Bacteria RNQP (Annex IV) Capsicum, Solanum Uncertain ACTIONABLE
GLOMGO Glomerella gossypii Fungi PZ Quarantine pest (Annex III) No Petunia as host unlikely
VERTAA Verticillium albo-atrum Fungi RNQP (Annex IV) Corylus, Cydonia, Fragaria, Malus, Pyrus No RNQP (No Solanaceae)
EOTELE Eotetranychus lewisi Mite A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) Likely ACTIONABLE
ALECWO Aleurocanthus woglumi Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Petunia as host unlikely
ANSTFR Anastrepha fraterculus Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Not a pathway
ANSTLU Anastrepha ludens Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Not a pathway
ANTHEU Anthonomus eugenii Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) Yes Not a pathway
PARZCO Bactericera cockerelli Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) Yes ACTIONABLE
BEMITA Bemisia tabaci Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) Yes ACTIONABLE
DIABUH Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Not a pathway
DIABVZ Diabrotica virgifera zeae Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Not a pathway
HELIZE Helicoverpa zea Insecta A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) Likely ACTIONABLE
GNORLY Keiferia lycopersicella Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Not a pathway
LIRISA Liriomyza sativae Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) Yes ACTIONABLE
PHRDMU Phyrdenus muriceus Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Not a pathway
RHYCPA Rhynchophorus palmarum Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Not a pathway
LAPHFR Spodoptera frugiperda Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Petunia as host unlikely
TECASO Tecia solanivora Insect A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) No Not a pathway
TOXOCI Aphis citricidus Insect A2 Quarantine pest (Annex II B) No Petunia as host unlikely
HELIVI Chloridea virescens Insect Emergency measures Likely ACTIONABLE
EPIXCU Epitrix cucumeris Insect Emergency measures Yes ACTIONABLE
EPIXSU Epitrix subcrinita Insect Emergency measures Likely ACTIONABLE
PRODOR Spodoptera ornithogalli Insect Emergency measures Yes ACTIONABLE
LPTNDE Leptinotarsa decemlineata Insect PZ Quarantine pest (Annex III) Yes Not a pathway
LIRIHU Liriomyza huidobrensis Insect PZ Quarantine pest (Annex III) Yes ACTIONABLE
LIRITR Liriomyza trifolii Insect PZ Quarantine pest (Annex III) Yes ACTIONABLE
MELGMY Meloidogyne enterolobii Nematode A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A) Yes Not a pathway
PEPGMV Pepper golden mosaic virusa Viruses and viroids A1 Non-EU Begomovirus Likely ACTIONABLE
PHYVV0 Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus Viruses and viroids A1 Non-EU Begomovirus Likely ACTIONABLE
SLCV00 Squash leaf curl virus Viruses and viroids A1 Non-EU Begomovirus No Petunia as host unlikely
TOSLCV Tomato severe leaf curl virus Viruses and viroids A1 Non-EU Begomovirus Likely ACTIONABLE
TYLCV0 Tomato yellow leaf curl virus Viruses and viroids RNQP (Annex IV) Solanum Yes ACTIONABLE
TSWV00 Tomato spotted wilt virus Viruses and viroids RNQP (Annex IV) Solanum Yes ACTIONABLE
  • a According to the NPPO of Guatemala Pepper golden mosaic virus is not present, however according to EPPO GD Pepper golden mosaic virus is present in Guatemala (see also Appendix A.2. Begomoviruses).
The relevance of an EU quarantine pest for this opinion was based on evidence that:
  1. the pest is present in Guatemala;
  2. Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. are a potential host of the pest;
  3. one or more life stages of the pest can be associated with the specified commodity.

For pests regulated as RNQPs only the ones regulated for solanaceous crops were selected for further evaluation. In Table 6, an overview is given of the conclusion for the 38 EU regulated pests that are known to use solanaceous host plants. Nineteen EU regulated pests were selected for further evaluation.

4.2 Selection of other relevant pests (non-regulated in the EU) associated with the commodity

The information provided by the NPPO of Guatemala, integrated with the search EFSA performed, was evaluated in order to assess whether there are other relevant pests potentially associated with unrooted cuttings of Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp., present in the country of export. For these potential pests that are not regulated in the EU, pest risk assessment information on the probability of introduction, establishment, spread and impact is usually lacking. Therefore, these non-regulated pests that are potentially associated with Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. were also evaluated to determine their relevance for this opinion based on evidence that:
  1. the pest is present in Guatemala;
  2. the pest (i) is absent or (ii) has a limited distribution in the EU and it is under official control at least in one of the MSs where it is present;
  3. Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. are a potential host of the pest; one or more life stages of the pest can be associated with the specified commodity;
  4. the pest may have an impact in the EU.

Pests that fulfilled all five criteria were selected for further evaluation.

Based on the information collected, 227 potential pests not regulated in the EU, known to be associated with solanaceous host plants or potentially associated with Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. were evaluated for their relevance to this opinion. Details can be found in the Appendix D (Microsoft Excel® file). Of the evaluated EU non-regulated pests, one species (Phenacoccus solenopsis) was selected for further evaluation. More information on these pest species can be found in the pest datasheets (Appendix A).

4.3 Summary of pests selected for further evaluation

Twenty pests that were identified to be present in Guatemala and having potential for association with unrooted cuttings of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. destined for export are listed in Table 7. The efficacy of the risk mitigation measures applied to the commodity was evaluated for these selected pests.

TABLE 7. List of relevant pests selected for further evaluation.
Number Current scientific name EPPO code Taxonomic information Group Cluster Regulatory status
1 Bemisia tabaci BEMITA

Hemiptera

Aleyrodidae

Insect EU Quarantine pest (non-European populations)
2 Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) PEPGMV

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Virus Begomovirus EU Quarantine pest
3 Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) PHYVV0

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Virus Begomovirus EU Quarantine pest
4 Tomato severe leaf curl virus (ToSLCV) TOSLCV

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Virus Begomovirus EU Quarantine pest
5 Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) TYLCV0

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Virus Begomovirus Regulated Non-Quarantine Pest
6 Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) TSWV00

Tospoviridae

Orthotospovirus

Virus Orthotospovirus Regulated Non-Quarantine Pest
7 Liriomyza huidobrensis LIRIHU

Diptera

Agromyzidae

Insect Leafminers Protected Zone Quarantine Pests (Annex III)
8 Liriomyza sativae LIRISA

Diptera

Agromyzidae

Insect Leafminers Protected Zone Quarantine Pests (Annex III)
9 Liriomyza trifolii LIRTR

Diptera

Agromyzidae

Insect Leafminers Protected Zone Quarantine Pests (Annex III)
10 Bactericera cockerelli PARZCO

Hemiptera

Triozidae

Insect EU Quarantine pest
11 Phenacoccus solenopsis PHENSO

Hemiptera

Pseudococcidae

Insect Not regulated in the EU
12 Eotetranychus lewisi EOTELE

Acarida

Tetranychidae

Mite EU Quarantine pest
13 Epitrix subcrinita EPIXSU

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Insect Epitrix Emergency measures
14 Epitrix cucumeris EPIXCU

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Insect Epitrix Emergency measures
15 Helicoverpa zea HELIZE

Lepidoptera

Noctuidae

Insect Moth EU Quarantine pest
16 Chloridea virescens HELIVI

Lepidoptera

Noctuidae

Insect Moth Emergency measures
17 Spodoptera ornithogalli PRODOR

Lepidoptera

Noctuidae

Insect Moth Emergency measures
18 Ralstonia solanacearum EALSSL

Burkholderiales

Burkholderiaceae

Bacteria Ralstonia EU Quarantine pest
19 Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum RALSPS

Burkholderiales

Burkholderiaceae

Bacteria Ralstonia EU Quarantine pest
20 Xanthomonas vesicatoria XANTVE

Lysobacterales

Lysobacteraceae

Bacteria Regulated Non-Quarantine Pest

4.4 List of potential pests not further assessed

From the list of pests not selected for further evaluation, the Panel highlighted 21 species (see Appendix C) for which currently available evidence provides no reason to select these species for further evaluation in this Opinion. In particular for the 19 viruses selected there is uncertainty on the pest status in the export country due to the absence of specific surveillance and testing. A specific justification of the inclusion in this list is provided for each species in Appendix C.

5 RISK MITIGATION MEASURES

For each selected pest (Table 7) the Panel assessed the possibility that it could be present in nurseries producing Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp.

The information used in the evaluation of the efficacy of the risk mitigation measures is summarised in a pest data sheet (see Appendix A).

5.1 Possibility of pest presence in the export nurseries

For each selected pest (Table 7) the Panel evaluated the likelihood that the pest could be present in a Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. nursery by evaluating the possibility that Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. plants in the export nursery are infested either by:
  • introduction of the pest from the environment surrounding the nursery,
  • introduction of the pest with new plants/seeds,
  • spread of the pest within the nursery.

5.2 Risk mitigation measures proposed

With the information provided by the NPPO Guatemala (Dossier sections 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0), the Panel summarised the risk mitigation measures (see Table 8) that are currently applied in the production nursery.

TABLE 8. Overview of currently applied risk mitigation measures for Petunia and Calibrachoa spp. unrooted cuttings designated for export to the EU from Guatemala.
Risk mitigation measures Current measures in Guatemala
1 Growing plants in isolation The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.
2 Dedicated hygiene measures For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Each unit has a specific set of clothes including a disinfection area. Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units.
3 Soil treatment The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.
4 Quality of source plant material The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel and are reported to be certified (see Section 17). No details are provided.
5 Crop rotation The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined to the export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.
6 Disinfection of irrigation water A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce chlorine dioxide (ClO2).
7 Pest monitoring and inspections

Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whiteflies, shoreflies and other flying insects.

Every week a scouting is done for detection of abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

8 Pesticide treatment

Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 3.0).

9 Sampling and testing Petunia and Calibrachoa plants are laboratory tested using serological techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the respective digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the laboratory each 6–8 weeks to test for viruses.
10 Packing and handling procedures

The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber.

The shipment of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

11 Official supervision by NPPO Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.
12 Surveillance of production area The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided in the dossier and in the requested additional information.
TABLE 9. List of pesticides used in the nursery producing Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. unrooted cuttings as specified in the dossier.
Active ingredient or biological agent Group
Acephate Insects (whiteflies, thrips)
Azadiractin Acari, insects (broad mites, spider mites, thrips, whiteflies)
Azoxystrobin Fungi (downy mildew, powdery mildew, Alternaria, Sclerotium, Rhizoctonia, white rust, anthracnosis, Myrothecium)
Beauveria bassiana Acari, insects (broad mites, thrips, aphids, spider mites)
Boscalid + Pyraclostrobin Fungi (Botrytis, downy mildew, powdery mildew, Alternaria, Myrothecium)
Carbendazim Fungi (Botrytis, fungi leave spots, anthracnosis, damping off)
Formetanate Hydrochloride Acari, insects (whiteflies, thrips, aphids, broad mites)
Chlorothalonil Fungi and oomycetes (Botrytis, downy mildew, powdery mildew, Alternaria, Phytophthora, rust, fungi leave spots, Myrothecium)
Copper Bacteria, fungi and oomycetes (Alternaria, Phytophthora)
Diafenthurion Acari, insects (broad mites, thrips, aphids, spider mites)
Emamecetin benzoate Insects (larvae, thrips, spider mites)
Folpet Fungi (Botrytis, Phytophthora)
Lambda-Cyhalotrin Insects (whiteflies, thrips, larvae, aphids, leaf minador)
Metalaxyl + Mancozeb Fungi and oomycetes (downy mildew, Phytophthora, Pythium)
Methiocarb Gastropoda, insects (thrips, spider mites, aphids, slugs)
Myclobutanil Fungi and oomycetes (powdery and downy mildew, Alternaria, rust, fungi leave spots)
Pyridalyl Insects
Spinoace Insects
Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate Insects
Thiophanate-Methyl Fungi

5.3 Evaluation of the current measures for the selected pests including uncertainties

The relevant risk mitigation measures acting on the selected pests were identified. Any limiting factors on the efficacy of the measures were documented. All the relevant information including the related uncertainties deriving from the limiting factors used in the evaluation are summarised in the pest datasheets provided in Appendix A.

Based on this information, an expert judgement has been given for the likelihood of pest freedom of the commodity taking into consideration the risk mitigation measures acting on the pest and their combination.

An overview of the evaluation of the selected pests is given in the sections below (Sections 3040). The outcome of EKE on pest freedom after the evaluation of the proposed risk mitigation measures is summarised in the Section 41.

5.3.1 Overview of the evaluation of Bemisia tabaci

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Pest free with few exceptional cases (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9946 out of 10,000 bags 9980 out of 10,000 bags 9990 out of 10,000 bags 9995out of 10,000 bags 9998 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 2 out of 10,000 bags 5 out of 10,000 bags 10 out of 10,000 bags 20 out of 10,000 bags 54 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous whitefly present in Guatemala and reported occurring in many horticultural crops. Certain Petunia species (Petunia sp., P. axillaris, P. grandiflora, P. integrifolia, P. hybrida) and Calibrachoa sp. are reported as Solanaceae host plants for B. tabaci (EPPO, online). The pest can be present on host plant species in the neighbouring environment of the nursery producing Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings for export to the EU. The pest is very small (1 mm) and can enter the production greenhouse through defects in the greenhouse structure or through hitchhiking on nursery workers. Eggs and nymphs may be present on the harvested cuttings.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). The mother plants used for cutting production are grown in dedicated greenhouses, enclosed with thrips proof nets. Ventilation areas are all screened. All greenhouses have double doors. There are hygienic measures in place for nursery workers entering the production unit. The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis by nursery staff. There are regular pesticide treatments with products effective against B. tabaci. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse ensuring compliance with the EU import requirements for B. tabaci.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– No details about the results of surveillance activities on the presence and population pressure of B. tabaci in the neighbouring environment of the nursery were provided.

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– There is no detailed information on inspection frequency and design prevalence.

5.3.2 Overview of the evaluation of Begomoviruses

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Pest free with few exceptional cases (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9974 out of 10,000 bags 9988 out of 10,000 bags 9995 out of 10,000 bags 9998 out of 10,000 bags 10,000 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 0 out of 10,000 bags 2 out of 10,000 bags 5 out of 10,000 bags 12 out of 10,000 bags 26 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) and tomato severe leaf curl virus (ToSLCV) are present in Guatemala, while for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) there are uncertainties concerning their presence and distribution in the country. The natural host range of begomoviruses includes members of the Solanaceae and also from other families; for ToSLCV and TYLCV there is evidence that Petunia is a host. Bemisia tabaci, the vector of these viruses, is reported to be widespread in Guatemala. The main pathway of entrance of the virus from the surrounding environment in the nursery is through viruliferous B. tabaci insects.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). The mother plants used for cutting production are grown in dedicated greenhouses, enclosed with plastic on the roofs and walls. Ventilation areas are all screened. The plastic cover and screens are checked twice per week for holes or cuts. All greenhouses have double doors with an air stream flowing out of the greenhouse when a door is opened. There are hygienic measures in place for nursery workers entering the production unit. The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis by nursery staff. There are regular insecticide treatments with products effective against B. tabaci. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse including the area surrounding the nurseries to ensure compliance with the EU import requirements for B. tabaci. Solanaceous plants for export are rotated each season between greenhouses to reduce the risk of pest infection. Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. plants are regularly inspected for symptoms and tested using serological based techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). However, begomoviruses are not mentioned in the list of virus species tested.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No other major shortcomings were identified in the evaluation with the notable exception of begomovirus monitoring. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– No details about the results of surveillance activities on the presence and population pressure of B. tabaci and begomoviruses in the neighbouring environment of the nursery were provided.

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– There is no detailed information on inspection frequency and design prevalence.

5.3.3 Overview of the evaluation of tomato spotted wilt virus

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Pest free with some exceptional cases (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9927 out of 10,000 bags 9952 out of 10,000 bags 9976 out of 10,000 bags 9992 out of 10,000 bags 9999 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 1 out of 10,000 bags 8 out of 10,000 bags 24 out of 10,000 bags 48 out of 10,000 bags 73 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV infects Petunia, tomato, pepper and potato; Calibrachoa is expected to be host to both species. TSWV, although not reported it is expected to be present in Guatemala as it is known to have a worldwide distribution and is it reported in all neighbouring countries.

TSWV is transmitted by thrips species reported to be widespread in Guatemala. Thrips species are highly polyphagous and can reach high populations on Solanaceae crops. The main pathway of entrance of the virus from the surrounding environment in the nursery is through viruliferous thrips.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). The mother plants used for cutting production are grown in dedicated greenhouses, enclosed with plastic on the roofs and walls. Ventilation areas are all screened. The plastic cover and screens are checked twice per week for holes or cuts. All greenhouses have double doors with an air stream flowing out of the greenhouse when a door is opened. There are hygienic measures in place for nursery workers entering the production unit. The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis by nursery staff. There are regular insecticide treatments with products effective against thrips. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse including the area surrounding the nurseries to ensure compliance with the EU import requirements for thrips. Solanaceous crops are rotated each season between greenhouses to reduce the risk of pest infection. Petunia and Calibrachoa plants are regularly inspected for symptoms and tested using serological based techniques for viruses (including INSV and TSWV) and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– No details on the presence and population pressure of TSWV and thrips in the neighbouring environment of the nursery were provided.

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– There is no detailed information on inspection frequency and design.

5.3.4 Overview of the evaluation of leafminers

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Pest free with few exceptional cases (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9962 out of 10,000 bags 9983 out of 10,000 bags 9992 out of 10,000 bags 9997 out of 10,000 bags 9999 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 1 out of 10,000 bags 3 out of 10,000 bags 8 out of 10,000 bags 17 out of 10,000 bags 38 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

The three leafminer species Liriomyza huidobrensi, L. sativae and L. trifolii are present in Guatemala and are highly polyphagous as they develop in many crops. Petunia and other Solanaceous plants such as tomato and pepper are reported to be hosts.

It is possible that local populations of leafminers are present in the neighbouring environment from which leafminer adults can spread over short distances through flight or wind assisted dispersal through defects in the greenhouse structure. Planting material is believed to be a key factor in their long-distance dispersal. When present in the greenhouse, flying adults can spread from infested host plants species within the nursery. Eggs and feeding larvae may be present on leaves of harvested unrooted cuttings.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

Plants in the greenhouse are protected from leafminers that may enter by netting. The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and is reported to be certified (no details provided). Plants in the greenhouse are protected from leafminers that may enter from the surrounding environment by netting. Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units. All greenhouses have double doors and there is a separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit possible dispersion of the pest. There are hygienic measures in place (e.g. for nursery workers entering the production unit and for the tools used). The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis. There are regular insecticide treatments with products effective against leafminers. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse ensuring the compliance with the EU import requirements.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported unrooted cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– No details on the presence and population pressure of leafminers in the neighbouring environment of the nursery.

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– The efficiency of the hygienic measures, monitoring, inspection, surveillance and the (timing of) the applied insecticides.

5.3.5 Overview of the evaluation of Bactericera cockerelli

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Pest free with few exceptional cases (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9964 out of 10,000 bags 9987 out of 10,000 bags 9994 out of 10,000 bags 9997 out of 10,000 bags 9999 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 1 out of 10,000 bags 3 out of 10,000 bags 6 out of 10,000 bags 13 out of 10,000 bags 36 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

Bactericera cockerelli is an EU Quarantine pest reported to be widespread in Guatemala. It is a polyphagous pest and mainly Solanaceous plants are hosts, but it has not been reported to feed on neither Petunia spp. nor Calibrachoa spp. plants. However the Panel assumes that Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are likely to be host plants.

This potato psyllid is a small phloem-feeding and polyvoltine insect. B. cockerelli is a good flyer and can spread over long distances by wind. In addition, imported mother plants may also be a possible pathway for the pest to enter the greenhouse. Specifically, B. cockerelli is present in El Salvador, one of the countries from which mother plants are originating. When present in the greenhouse, flying adults can spread from infested host plants species within the nursery. Eggs, nymphs and adults may be present on hosts plants.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

Insect proof netting prevents B. cockerelli from entering the greenhouse. The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units. All greenhouses have double doors and there is a separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit possible dispersion of the pest. There are hygienic measures in place (e.g. for nursery workers entering the production unit and for the tools used). The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis. There are regular insecticide treatments with products effective against B. cockerelli. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse ensuring the compliance to with the EU import requirements.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported unrooted cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– The host status of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. for B. cockerelli.

– No details on the abundance of the species in El Salvador.

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– The efficiency of the hygienic measures, monitoring, inspection, surveillance and the (timing of) the applied insecticides.

5.3.6 Overview of the evaluation of Phenacoccus solenopsis

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Pest free with few exceptional cases (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9947 out of 10,000 bags 9980 out of 10,000 bags 9990 out of 10,000 bags 9995 out of 10,000 bags 9998 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 2 out of 10,000 bags 5 out of 10,000 bags 10 out of 10,000 bags 20 out of 10,000 bags 53 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

Phenacoccus solenopsis is a highly invasive and polyphagous scale present in Guatemala. Given the wide host range of this pest it is possible that local populations of P. solenopsis may be present in the neighbouring environment. Petunia is reported among the host of P. solenopsis. The crawlers have been reported to be commonly dispersed by wind for distances ranging from a few meters to several kilometres.

Possible pathways of entry for mealybugs are plant materials of any kind (hiding in a protected site – on the bark, roots, stems and leaves), human transportation, irrigation water, wind, animals and ants.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

Plants in the greenhouse are protected from P. solenopsis that may enter by netting. The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units. All greenhouses have double doors and there is a separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit possible dispersion of the pest. There are hygienic measures in place (e.g. for nursery workers entering the production unit and for the tools used). The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis. There are regular insecticide treatments with products effective against P. solenopsis. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse ensuring compliance to the EU import requirements. The pest is relatively easy to detect (honeydew) and may be controlled by nurseries with standard insecticide treatments.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– No details about the results of surveillance activities on the presence and population pressure of P. solenopsis in the neighbouring environment of the nursery were provided.

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– There is no detailed information on inspection frequency and design.

5.3.7 Overview of the evaluation of Eotetranychus lewisii

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Pest free with few exceptional cases (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9959 out of 10,000 bags 9986 out of 10,000 bags 9995 out of 10,000 bags 9998 out of 10,000 bags 9999 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 1 out of 10,000 bags 2 out of 10,000 bags 5 out of 10,000 bags 14 out of 10,000 bags 41 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

Eotetranychus lewisi is a highly polyphagous pest. Given the wide host range of this pest it is possible that local populations of E. lewisi may be present in the neighbouring environment. Although this mite has not been reported to feed on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. plants, given its polyphagous nature, including Solanaceous host plants, Petunia/Calibrachoa could be suitable host plants.

Spider mites are dispersed by wind currents in the field, so they may enter the nursery from host plants that might be present in the surrounding environment. Defects in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable mites to enter, as well as hitchhiking on persons or material entering the greenhouse.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

Plants in the greenhouse are protected from E. lewisi that may enter by netting. The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units. All greenhouses have double doors and there is a separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit possible dispersion of the pest. There are hygienic measures in place (e.g. for nursery workers entering the production unit and for the tools used). The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis. There are regular insecticide treatments with products effective against E. lewisi. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse ensuring the compliance with the EU import requirements.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– Abundance of E. lewisi and the presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.

– The intensity and the design of surveillance scheme.

5.3.8 Overview of the evaluation of Epitrix spp.

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Almost always pest free (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9996 out of 10,000 bags 9997 out of 10,000 bags 9998 out of 10,000 bags 9999 out of 10,000 bags 10,000 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 0 out of 10,000 bags 1 out of 10,000 bags 2 out of 10,000 bags 3 out of 10,000 bags 4 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

The main host of E. subcrinita and E. cucumeris is potato (Solanum tuberosum), but they have also been reported on many other Solanaceae plants, like several species of the genera Solanum, Physalis and Nicotiana and Capsicum. E. cucumeris is reported on Petunia spp. Epitrix subcrinita has not been reported to feed on Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. plants, however the Panel assumes that Petunia and Calibrachoa are likely host plants of E. subcrinita. Adults of E. subcrinita can fly and they may enter the nursery from host plants that might be present in the surrounding environment. Although adults of E. cucumeris do not fly they are able to move and they may enter the nursery from host plants that might be present in the surrounding environment. Moreover, the pest may enter the nursery from the soil that may be attached to the equipment. Defects in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable adults to enter. Epitrix adults feeding on unrooted cuttings of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. could be associated with the commodity. However, they cause typical shot holes that are relatively easily detected and such cuttings should not be acceptable for trade.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

Plants in the greenhouse are protected from Epitrix that may enter by netting. The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). The mother plants used for cutting production are grown in dedicated greenhouses, enclosed with plastic on the roofs and walls. Ventilation areas are all screened with insect proof netting. The plastic cover and screens are checked twice per week for holes or cuts. All greenhouses have double doors with an air stream flowing out of the greenhouse when a door is opened. There are hygienic measures in place for nursery workers entering the production unit. The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis by nursery staff. There are regular insecticide treatments with products effective against Epitrix. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse ensuring the compliance with the EU import requirements for E. cucumeris and E. subcrinita.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– No details about the results of surveillance activities on the presence and population pressure of the two Epitrix species in the neighbouring environment of the nursery were provided.

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– There is no detailed information on inspection frequency and design prevalence.

5.3.9 Overview of the evaluation of moths (Helicoverpa zea, Chloridea virescens and Spodoptera ornithogalli)

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Almost always pest free (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9992 out of 10,000 bags 9995 out of 10,000 bags 9997 out of 10,000 bags 9998 out of 10,000 bags 9999 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 1 out of 10,000 bags 2 out of 10,000 bags 3 out of 10,000 bags 5 out of 10,000 bags 8 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

The moth species Helicoverpa zea, Chloridea virescens and Spodoptera ornithogalli are present in Guatemala (EPPO GD).

H. zea, C. virescens and S. ornithogalli are highly polyphagous moths. There is evidence indicating that all the three species are present in Guatemala, despite according to the NPPO of Guatemala S. ornithogalli is not present in the country.

C. virescens and S. ornithogalli are reported on Petunia or Calibrachoa. There are no host plant records of Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. for H. zea. However, the Panel assumes that Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are likely to be host plants.

The three moth species could be present on host plant crops cultivated in the area where the export nurseries are located. Moths are good fliers and it is possible that mated females are present near a greenhouse. Given the size of the adult moths (wingspan 3–5 cm) only the presence of large defects in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable a moth to enter. Hitchhiking moth on persons or material entering the greenhouse is unlikely.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

Plants in the greenhouse are protected from moths that may enter by netting. The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). The mother plants used for cutting production are grown in dedicated greenhouses, enclosed with plastic on the roofs and walls. Ventilation areas are all screened with insect proof nettings. The plastic cover and screens are checked twice per week for holes or cuts. All greenhouses have double doors with an air stream flowing out of the greenhouse when a door is opened. There are hygienic measures in place for nursery workers entering the production unit. The production place is monitored for the presence of pests on a weekly basis by nursery staff. There are regular insecticide treatments with products effective against the moths. The NPPO does regular inspections in the greenhouse ensuring the compliance with the EU import requirements for H. zea, C. virescens and S. ornithogalli.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– No details about the results of surveillance activities on the presence and population pressure of the three months in the neighbouring environment of the nursery were provided.

– The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

– There is no detailed information on inspection frequency and design prevalence.

5.3.10 Overview of the evaluation of Ralstonia spp.

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Pest free with some exceptional cases (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9916 out of 10,000 bags 9968 out of 10,000 bags 9981 out of 10,000 bags 9989 out of 10,000 bags 9996 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 4 out of 10,000 bags 11 out of 10,000 bags 19 out of 10,000 bags 32 out of 10,000 bags 84 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

Petunia hybrida and Calibrachoa sp. are listed as host plants for R. solanacearum and Petunia is used as experimental host for plant/R. pseudosolanacearum molecular interaction studies.

R. solanacearum and R. pseudosolanacearum are present and widespread in Guatemala. They infect numerous cultivated solanaceous plants and are present on numerous wild host plants species.

R. solanacearum and R. pseudosolanacearum are soilborne bacteria. They are transmitted by contaminated soil, irrigation water, tools and infected plant materials. Bacteria enter the plants usually by root injuries and they can also infect plants via stem injuries.

The bacteria colonise the xylem vessels. Unrooted cuttings of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. can be systemically infected.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Plants in the greenhouse are protected from infection by R. solanacearum and R. pseudosolanacearum through contaminated soil by Metam-Sodium disinfection of the production area and the use of new substrate for each production cycle. Irrigation water could be one of the main pathways for the introduction of R. solanacearum and R. pseudosolanacearum in the facilities. However, irrigation water is treated with Chlorine dioxide.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No major shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings.

Main uncertainties

  • No tests specific to R. solanacearum and R. pseudosolanacearum are reported to be done during production process and at the exporting step.
  • There is no detailed information on inspection frequency and design.
  • Presence of unnoticed defects in the water treatment.
  • Infected plants and infested soil in the surroundings.
  • Presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.

5.3.11 Overview of the evaluation of Xanthomonas vesicatoria

Rating of the likelihood of pest freedom Almost always pest free (based on the median)
Percentile of the distribution 5% 25% Median 75% 95%
Proportion of pest-free bags 9983 out of 10,000 bags 9991 out of 10,000 bags 9995 out of 10,000 bags 9998 out of 10,000 bags 10,000 out of 10,000 bags
Proportion of infested bags 0 out of 10,000 bags 2 out of 10,000 bags 5 out of 10,000 bags 9 out of 10,000 bags 17 out of 10,000 bags
Summary of the information used for the evaluation

Possibility that the pest could become associated with the commodity

Petunia hybrida and Calibrachoa sp. are not listed as host plants for Xanthomonas vesicatoria (EPPO GD, online). However, they have a high potential to be host plants because of the wide host range of X. vesicatoria within the solanaceous family. X. vesicatoria is a seed borne bacterium. Less frequently, primary infections may be caused by the presence of infected plant debris or volunteers from a previous crop. Secondary innocula released from lesions on leaves and stems are spread via splashing water and wind driven rain.

Measures taken against the pest and their efficacy

The imported plant material from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel is reported to be certified (no details provided). The mother plants used for cutting production are grown in dedicated greenhouses, enclosed with thrips proof nets which prevent entering of X. vesicatoria by wind unless the net is damaged during a storm. Ventilation areas are all screened. All greenhouses have double doors. There are hygienic measures in place for nursery workers entering the production unit.

Shortcomings of current measures/procedures

No major shortcomings were identified in the evaluation. If all the described measures are implemented correctly it is unlikely that the pest is present on the harvested and exported Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings.

Main uncertainties

– No details about the results of surveillance activities on the presence and population pressure of X. vesicatoria in the neighbouring environment of the facilities were provided.

– There is no detailed information on inspection frequency and design prevalence.

5.3.12 Outcome of expert knowledge elicitation

Table 10 and Figure 6 show the outcome of the EKE regarding pest freedom after the evaluation of the currently proposed risk mitigation measures for the selected pests.

TABLE 10. Assessment of the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures against evaluated pests Bemisia tabaci, Bactericera cockerelli, begomoviruses (pepper golden mosaic virus, pepper huasteco yellow vein virus, tomato severe leaf curl virus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus), leafminers (Liriomyza huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii), tomato spotted wilt virus, Phenacoccus solenopsis, Epitrix (Epitrix subcrinita, E. cucumeris), Eotetranychus lewisi, moths (Helicoverpa zea, Chloridea virescens, Spodoptera ornithogalli), Ralstonia (Ralstonia solancearum, R. pseudosolanacearum), Xanthomonas vesicatoria on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. unrooted cuttings designated for export to the EU. In panel A, the median value for the assessed level of pest freedom for each pest is indicated by ‘M', the 5% percentile is indicated by L and the 95% percentile is indicated by U. The percentiles together span the 90% uncertainty range regarding pest freedom. The pest freedom categories are defined in panel B of the table.
Number Group Pest species Sometimes pest free More often than not pest free Frequently pest free Very frequently pest free Extremely frequently pest free Pest free with some exceptional cases Pest free with few exceptional cases Almost always pest free
1 Insects Bemisia tabaci L M U
2 Insects Bactericera cockerelli L M U
3 Viruses Begomoviruses (pepper golden mosaic virus, pepper huasteco yellow vein virus, tomato severe leaf curl virus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus) L M U
4 Insects Leafminers (Liriomyza huidobrensis, L. sativae and L. trifolii) L M U
5 Viruses Tomato spotted wilt virus L M U
6 Insects Phenacoccus solenopsis L M U
7 Insects Epitrix (Epitrix subcrinita, E. cucumeris) LMU
8 Mites Eotetranychus lewisi L M U
9 Insects Moths (Helicoverpa zea, Chloridea virescens, Spodoptera ornithogalli) L MU
10 Bacteria Ralstonia (Ralstonia solancearum, R. pseudosolanacearum) L M U
11 Bacteria Xanthomonas vesicatoria L MU

PANEL A

Pest freedom category Pest-free plants out of 10,000 Legend of pest freedom categories
Sometimes pest free ≤ 5000 L Pest freedom category includes the elicited lower bound of the 90% uncertainty range
More often than not pest free 5000– ≤ 9000 M Pest freedom category includes the elicited median
Frequently pest free 9000– ≤ 9500 U Pest freedom category includes the elicited upper bound of the 90% uncertainty range
Very frequently pest free 9500– ≤ 9900
Extremely frequently pest free 9900– ≤ 9950
Pest free with some exceptional cases 9950– ≤ 9990
Pest free with few exceptional cases 9990– ≤ 9995
Almost always pest free 9995– ≤ 10,000

PANEL B

Details are in the caption following the image
Elicited certainty (y-axis) of the number of pest-free Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. bags (x-axis; log-scaled) out of 10,000 bags designated for export to the EU introduced from Guatemala for all evaluated pests visualised as descending distribution function. Horizontal lines indicate the percentiles (starting from the bottom 5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 95%).

Figure 7 provides an explanation of the descending distribution function describing the likelihood of pest freedom after the evaluation of the currently proposed risk mitigation measures for Ralstonia spp. on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. unrooted cuttings designated for export to the EU.

Details are in the caption following the image
Explanation of the descending distribution function describing the likelihood of pest freedom after the evaluation of the currently proposed risk mitigation measures for plants designated for export to the EU based on the example of Ralstonia spp.

6 CONCLUSIONS

There are 20 pests identified to be present in Guatemala and considered to be potentially associated with unrooted cuttings of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. imported from Guatemala and relevant for the EU. The likelihood of the pest freedom after the evaluation of the implemented risk mitigation measures for unrooted cuttings of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. designated for export to the EU was estimated. The limited and partially conflicting information provided in the dossier contributes to the wide estimates of pest freedom.

For B. tabaci, the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘pest free with few exceptional cases’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘extremely frequently pest free’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9946 and 10,000 bags containing unrooted cuttings per 10,000 will be free from B. tabaci.

For B. cockerelli, the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘pest free with few exceptional cases’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘pest free with some exceptional cases’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9964 and 10,000 bags containing unrooted cuttings per 10,000 will be free from B. cockerelli.

For the selected begomoviruses (pepper golden mosaic virus, pepper huasteco yellow vein virus, tomato severe leaf curl virus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus), the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘pest free with few exceptional cases’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘pest free with some exceptional cases’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9974 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from the selected begomoviruses species.

For the selected leafminers (Liriomyza huidobrensis, L. sativae and L. trifolii), the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘Pest free with few exceptional cases’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘Pest free with some exceptional cases’ to ‘Almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9962 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from the selected leafminers species.

For tomato spotted wilt virus, the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘pest free with some exceptional cases’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘extremely frequently pest free’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9927 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from TSWV.

For P. solenopsis, the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘pest free with few exceptional cases’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘extremely frequently pest free’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9947 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from P. solenopsis.

For the selected Epitrix (E. subcrinita, E. cucumeris) species, the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘almost always pest free’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘almost always pest free’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9996 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from the selected Epitrix species.

For E. lewisi, the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘pest free with few exceptional cases’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘pest free with some exceptional cases’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9959 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from E. lewisi.

For moths (H. zea, C. virescens, S. ornithogalli), the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘almost always pest free’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘pest free with few exceptional cases’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9992 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from the selected moths species.

For the selected Ralstonia (R. solancearum, R. pseudosolanacearum) species, the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘pest free with some exceptional cases’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘extremely frequently pest free’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9916 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from the selected Ralstonia species.

For X. vesicatoria, the likelihood of pest freedom following evaluation of current risk mitigation measures was estimated as ‘almost always pest free’ with the 90% uncertainty range reaching from ‘pest free with some exceptional cases’ to ‘almost always pest free’. The EKE indicated, with 95% certainty, that between 9983 and 10,000 bags per 10,000 will be free from X. vesicatoria.

GLOSSARY

  • Control (of a pest)
  • Suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population (FAO, 1995, 2017).
  • Entry (of a pest)
  • Movement of a pest into an area where it is not yet present, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled (FAO, 2017).
  • Establishment (of a pest)
  • Perpetuation, for the foreseeable future, of a pest within an area after entry (FAO, 2017).
  • Greenhouse
  • A walk-in, static, closed place of crop production with a usually translucent outer shell, which allows controlled exchange of material and energy with the surroundings and prevents release of plant protection products (PPPs) into the environment.
  • Impact (of a pest)
  • The impact of the pest on the crop output and quality and on the environment in the occupied spatial units.
  • Introduction (of a pest)
  • The entry of a pest resulting in its establishment (FAO, 2017).
  • Measures
  • Control (of a pest) is defined in ISPM 5 (FAO, 2017) as ‘Suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population’ (FAO, 1995). Control measures are measures that have a direct effect on pest abundance. Supporting measures are organisational measures or procedures supporting the choice of appropriate risk mitigation measures that do not directly affect pest abundance.
  • Pathway
  • Any means that allows the entry or spread of a pest (FAO, 2017).
  • Phytosanitary measures
  • Any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests (FAO, 2017).
  • Protected zone
  • A Protected zone is an area recognised at EU level to be free from a harmful organism, which is established in one or more other parts of the Union.
  • Quarantine pest
  • A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled (FAO, 2017)).
  • Regulated non-quarantine pest
  • A non-quarantine pest whose presence in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact and which is therefore regulated within the territory of the importing contracting party (FAO, 2017).
  • Risk mitigation measure
  • A measure acting on pest introduction and/or pest spread and/or the magnitude of the biological impact of the pest should the pest be present. A risk mitigation measure may become a phytosanitary measure, action or procedure according to the decision of the risk manager.
  • Spread (of a pest)
  • Expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area (FAO, 2017).
  • ABBREVIATIONS

  • CABI
  • Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International
  • EKE
  • Expert Knowledge Elicitation
  • EPPO
  • European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization
  • FAO
  • Food and Agriculture Organization
  • ISPM
  • International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures
  • PPIS
  • Plant Protection & Inspection Services
  • PLH
  • Plant Health
  • PRA
  • Pest Risk Aassessment
  • RNQPs
  • Regulated Non-Quarantine Pests
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    EFSA wishes to acknowledge the important contribution of the trainees Paraskevi Kariampa and Raghavendra Reddy Manda.

      CONFLICT OF INTEREST

      If you wish to access the declaration of interests of any expert contributing to an EFSA scientific assessment, please contact [email protected].

      AMENDMENT

      An editorial correction was made in February 2024, as some figures were incorrectly inserted in the text and there were few typos in the names of pest species. Specifically, in Appendix A, the Figures A.9 (A, B, and C) were replaced and a correction in the species name was made in Figures A.11 (A, B, and C). The pest species name "Eotetranychus lewisi" was corrected in the abstract and three keywords were removed, as they are already present in the title. These corrections do not materially affect the contents or outcome of this scientific output. To avoid confusion, the original version of the output has been removed from the EFSA Journal but is available on request.

      REQUESTOR

      European Commission

      QUESTION NUMBER

      EFSA-Q-2022-00238

      COPYRIGHT FOR NON-EFSA CONTENT

      EFSA may include images or other content for which it does not hold copyright. In such cases, EFSA indicates the copyright holder and users should seek permission to reproduce the content from the original source.

      PANEL MEMBERS

      Claude Bragard, Elisavet Chatzivassiliou, Francesco Di Serio, Paula Baptista, Paolo Gonthier, Josep Anton Jaques Miret, Annemarie Fejer Justesen, Alan MacLeod, Christer Sven Magnusson, Panagiotis Milonas, Juan A. Navas-Cortes, Stephen Parnell, Roel Potting, Philippe L. Reignault, Emilio Stefani, Hans-Hermann Thulke, Wopke Van der Werf, Antonio Vicent, Jonathan Yuen, and Lucia Zappalà.

      MAP DISCLAIMER

      The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the European Food Safety Authority concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

      Notes

    1. 1 Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 of 28 November 2019 establishing uniform conditions for the implementation of Regulation (EU) 2016/2031 of the European Parliament and the Council, as regards protective measures against pests of plants, and repealing Commission Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 and amending Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019. OJ L 319, 10.12.2019, p. 1–279.
    2. 2 In a request for additional information, the NPPO of Guatemala provided contradictory information regarding the production cycles of the commodities. In this evaluation, the Panel considered the production cycles described in the initial dossier (Dossier section 1) as valid.
    3. APPENDIX A: Data sheets of pests selected for further evaluation via Expert Knowledge Elicitation

      A.1 Bemisia tabaci

      A.1.1 Organism information

      Taxonomic information

      Current valid scientific name: Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889).

      Synonyms: Aleurodes inconspicua, Aleurodes tabaci, Bemisia achyranthes, Bemisia bahiana, Bemisia costa-limai, Bemisia emiliae, Bemisia goldingi, Bemisia gossypiperda, Bemisia gossypiperda mosaicivectura, Bemisia hibisci, Bemisia inconspicua, Bemisia longispina, Bemisia lonicerae, Bemisia manihotis, Bemisia minima, Bemisia minuscula, Bemisia nigeriensis, Bemisia rhodesiaensis, Bemisia signata, Bemisia vayssieri.

      Name used in the EU legislation: Bemisia tabaci Genn. (non-European populations) known to be vector of viruses [BEMITA].

      Order: Hemiptera

      Family: Aleyrodidae

      Common name: Tobacco whitefly, cassava whitefly, cotton whitefly, silver-leaf whitefly, sweet-potato whitefly.

      Name used in the dossier: Bemisia tabaci

      Group Insects
      EPPO code BEMITA
      Regulated status The pest is listed in Annex II/A of Commission implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 as Bemisia tabaci Genn. (non-European populations) known to be vector of viruses [BEMITA], and in Annex III as Protected Zone Quarantine Pest (European populations).
      Pest status in Guatemala

      Bemisia tabaci is present in Guatemala (CABI, online; EPPO, online). The biotypes Med (formerly referred to as biotype Q), MEAM1 (formerly referred to as biotype B) and New World 1 (formerly referred to as biotype A) are reported from Guatemala to infest many plant host species (Bethke et al., 2008; McKenzie et al., 2012; Shatters et al., 2009; Surapathrudu Kanakala and Murad Ghanim, 2019).

      Bethke et al., (2008) investigated the presence of B. tabaci biotypes in production greenhouses of Poinsettia (Euphorbia) and its surrounding environment (weeds and crops) in Guatemala. B. tabaci was found to be present inside two greenhouses (on Euphorbia) and outside the greenhouse on Hibiscus, Lactuca, Cucumis and Phaseolus.

      Pest status in the EU Not relevant as EU quarantine pest.
      Host status on Petunia sp. and Calibrachoa sp. Certain Petunia species (Petunia sp., P. axillaris, P. grandiflora, P. integrifolia, P. hybrida) and Calibrachoa sp. are reported as Solanaceae host plants for B. tabaci (EPPO, online). Petunia hybrida is reported as field-verified host plant for B. tabaci in China Iran and Turkey (Bayhan et al., 2006; Li et al., 2011; Samin et al., 2015). In Brasil B. tabaci is reported to infest petunia plants in commercial green greenhouses (de Moraes et al., 2017).
      PRA information

      – Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory (EFSA PLH Panel, 2013).

      – Scientific Opinion on the commodity risk assessment of Persea americana from Israel (EFSA PLH Panel, 2021)

      – Scientific report on the commodity risk assessment of specified species of Lonicera potted plants from Turkey (EFSA PLH Panel, 2022a).

      – Scientific Opinion on the commodity risk assessment of Jasminum polyanthum unrooted cuttings from Uganda (EFSA PLH Panel, 2022b).

      – UK Risk Register Details for Bemisia tabaci non-European populations (DEFRA, online).

      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology

      Bemisia tabaci is a complex of at least 40 cryptic species that are morphologically identical but distinguishable at molecular level (Khatun et al., 2018). The species differ from each other in host association, spread capacity, transmission of viruses and resistance to insecticides (De Barro et al., 2011). It is an important agricultural pest that can transmit more than 121 viruses (belonging to genera Begomovirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Carlavirus and Torradovirus) and cause significant damage to major food crops such as solanaceous and cucurbits crops and ornamental plants (EFSA PLH Panel, 2013).

      Bemisia tabaci adult is about 1 mm long. It develops through three life stages: egg, nymph (four instars) and adult (Walker et al., 2009). Nymphs of B. tabaci mainly feed on phloem in minor veins of the underside leaf surface (Cohen et al., 1996). Adults feed on both phloem and xylem of leaves (Walker et al., 2009).

      Bemisia tabaci is multivoltine with up to 15 generations per year (Ren et al., 2001). The life cycle from egg to adult requires from 2.5 weeks up to 2 months depending on the temperature (Norman et al., 1995) and the host plant (Coudriet et al., 1985). B. tabaci has a high reproductive potential and each female can lay more than 300 eggs during their lifetime (Gerling et al., 1986), which can be found mainly on the underside of the leaves (CABI, online). During oviposition, females insert eggs with the pedicel directly into leaf tissue (Paulson and Beardsley, 1985).

      Out of all life stages, only the first instar nymph (crawler) and adults are mobile. Movement of crawlers by walking is very limited, usually within the leaf where they hatched (Price and Taborsky, 1992) or to more suitable neighbouring leaves. The average distance was estimated to be within 10–70 mm (Summers et al., 1996). For these reasons, they are not considered to be good colonisers. On the contrary, adults can fly reaching quite long distances in a search of a permanent host. According to Cohen et al. (1988), some of the marked individuals were trapped 7 km away from the initial place after 6 days. Long-distance passive dispersal by wind is also possible (Byrne, 1999).

      Symptoms Main type of symptoms Wide range of symptoms can occur on plants due to direct feeding of the pest, contamination of honeydew and sooty moulds, transmitted viruses and phytotoxic responses. Plants exhibit one or more of these symptoms: chlorotic spotting, vein yellowing, intervein yellowing, leaf yellowing, yellow blotching of leaves, yellow mosaic of leaves, leaf curling, leaf crumpling, leaf vein thickening, leaf enations, leaf cupping, stem twisting, plant stunting, wilting, leaf loss and silvering of leaves (CABI, online; EPPO, 2004).
      Presence of asymptomatic plants No asymptomatic period is known to occur in the infested plants. However, eggs and first instar larvae are difficult to detect. Symptoms of the infestation by the insect are visible. B. tabaci is a vector of several viruses and their infection could be asymptomatic.
      Confusion with other pathogens/pests Bemisia tabaci can be easily confused with other whitefly species such as B. afer, Trialeurodes lauri, T. packardi, T. ricini, T. vaporariorum and T. variabilis. A microscopic slide is needed for morphological identification (EPPO, 2004). Different species of B. tabaci complex can be distinguished using molecular methods (De Barro et al., 2011).
      Host plant range B. tabaci is a polyphagous pest with a wide host range, including more than 1000 different plant species (Abd-Rabou and Simmons, 2010).
      What life stages could be expected on the commodity

      All life stages of B. tabaci (eggs, larvae and adults) are present on the leaves of the plants

      B. tabaci is continuously intercepted in the EU on different commodities including plants for planting and unrooted cuttings (EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT, online). Therefore, the commodity is a pathway for B. tabaci.

      Surveillance information There are no targeted surveys for the presence of B. tabaci in Guatemala.

      A.1.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.1.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      B. tabaci is a polyphagous whitefly that is widespread in Guatemala and reported occurring in many horticultural crops, such as melon (Bethke et al., 2008). It is likely that B. tabaci is present in the area where the nurseries are located. For another similar commodity in Guatemala (Euphorbia cuttings for export) it was shown that B. tabaci was present in production greenhouses and on plants in the environment of the greenhouse (Bethke et al., 2008)). Flying adults of B. tabaci can be transferred by the wind over kilometres and could enter the nursery from host plants that might be present in the surrounding environment. Petunia/Calibrachoa cuttings are produced in a greenhouse protected against insects by screened windows and double doors. Small insects as B. tabaci (1 mm) may enter the greenhouse through defects in the protective screens or as hitchhiker on clothes of nursery staff. The use of yellow sticky cards to monitor insect presence suggests that insects are able to enter the production facilities.

      Uncertainties
      • It is not known what the B. tabaci population pressure is in the surrounding environment of the nursery.
      • Presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.
      • The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

      A.1.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Mother plants used for the production of unrooted cuttings originate from the Netherlands, Germany, El Salvador and Israel. There is a possibility that B. tabaci could enter the nursery with infested propagation material of host plants species.

      Uncertainties
      • The origin of the propagation material in relation to the infested areas.
      • The presence and the numbers of other host plants in the export nursery.

      A.1.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      B. tabaci can be present in other host plants in other production units of the nursery. When present, flying adults can spread from infested host plants within the nursery. Petunia spp. for export are produced in a separate unit with hygienic standards (double doors, clean uniforms).

      Uncertainties
      • There are no uncertainties.

      A.1.3 Information from interceptions

      B. tabaci is the most intercepted pest species on plants for planting imported into the EU, including unrooted cuttings. In the EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT database there are 2 records of interceptions of B. tabaci on Petunia sp. and 1 records of interception on Calibrachoa sp. from Israel. There were 10 interceptions of B. tabaci on different commodities (Hibiscus sp.: 2; Euphorbia pulcherrima: 4; Euphorbia sp.: 1; Euphorbia trigona: 1; Eupatorium purpureum: 1; Ocimum sp.: 1) imported into the EU from Guatemala.

      A.1.4 Evaluation of the risk mitigation options

      In the table below, all risk mitigation measures currently applied in Guatemala are listed and described and an indication of their effectiveness on B. tabaci is provided:

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      Plants in the greenhouse are protected from dispersing B. tabaci and crawlers that may enter from the surrounding environment. B. tabaci may be introduced through defects in the greenhouse. Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Same unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia and Calibrachoa are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of whitefly.

      Uncertainties:

      Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment N

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Description:

      The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel and are reported to be certified (See Section 17).

      Evaluation:

      B. tabaci is present in El Salvador and Israel.

      Uncertainties:

      The details of the certification schemes and the phytosanitary status of the imported material from the non-EU countries.

      Crop rotation N

      Description:

      Solanaceae crops for export are changing each season the greenhouses to reduce the risk about the infection with pathogens or virus. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.

      Disinfection of irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whiteflies, shoreflies and other flying insects

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of B. tabaci adults.

      Uncertainties:

      The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 3.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides are effective against B. tabaci.

      Uncertainties:

      The efficacy of the applied insecticide and its timing is not known.

      Sampling and testing N

      Description:

      Petunia and Calibrachoa plants are laboratory tested using serological based techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the lab each 6–8 weeks to test the virus.

      Packing and handling procedures N

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber.

      The shipment of Petunia and Calibrachoa cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Official supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      For the EU import of plants there are requirements in place for all host plants (including Petunia) of Non-EU Begomoviruses and its vector Bemisia tabaci (point 7 of Annex VII of Regulation (EU) 2019/2072).

      In summary the requirements are:

      1. Official statement that no symptoms of begomoviruses have been observed on the plants during their complete cycle of vegetation.
      2. The plants have been subjected to an effective treatment ensuring the eradication of Bemisia tabaci and the other vectors of the Union quarantine pests and have been found free thereof prior to export.

      The panel assumes that the NPPO checks this requirement and acts accordingly when begomovirus symptoms or B. tabaci is detected in a production plot destined for export to EU.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of B. tabaci.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection is not known.

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided.

      Evaluation:

      The surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of B. tabaci. However no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of surveillance scheme.

      A.1.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.1.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are not a preferred host.
      • The Dispersal capacity of B. tabaci adults is limited.
      • Low population pressure of B. tabaci in the surrounding environment, due to the limited presence of preferred host plants.
      • Greenhouse structure is insect-proof and entrance is thus unlikely.
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective, insects are expected to be easily detected because of the typical symptoms on leaves.
      • Rotation of compartments (Solanaceae, other), dedicated compartments for export.
      • Application of the insecticides have a good efficacy against B. tabaci.
      • At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms will be detected.
      • 25 cuttings per bag.

      A.1.5.2 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      • B. tabaci has been intercepted on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. Plants (from Israel) and on Hibiscus, Euphorbia, Eupatorium and Ocimum plants from Guatemala.
      • B. tabaci is present throughout Guatemala and they have a wide host range, mainly Solanaceous plant, therefore it is likely that host plants are present in the surrounding environment.
      • Greenhouses are located in areas where B. tabaci is present and abundant (e.g. melon).
      • Presence of B. tabaci in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure.
      • Insecticide treatments are not targeting B. tabaci.
      • 80 cutting per bag.

      A.1.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      • Tendency for the low scenario and good production conditions.
      • High uncertainty for values below median.
      • Less uncertainty for higher values.

      A.1.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile/interquartile range)

      • The main uncertainty is the population pressure of B. tabaci in the surrounding environment.
      • High uncertainty for values below median.
      • Less uncertainty for higher values.

      A.1.6 Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for Bemisia tabaci

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.1) and pest freedom (Table A.2).

      TABLE A.1. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation by Bemisia tabaci per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 1 5 10 20 100
      EKE 0.923 1.34 1.86 2.69 3.72 5.01 6.43 10.0 15.6 20.0 26.9 37.1 53.9 74.4 108
      • Note: The EKE results is the Lognorm (16.893, 23.001) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.2.

      TABLE A.2. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of Bemisia tabaci per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.1.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9900 9980 9990 9995 9999
      EKE results 9892 9926 9946 9963 9973 9980 9984 9990 9994 9995 9996 9997 9998.1 9998.7 9999.1
      • Note: The EKE results are the fitted values.
      image

      FIGURE A .1 (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for Bemisia tabaci complex (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (C) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags.

      A.1.7 Reference list

      Abd-Rabou, S., & Simmons, A. M. (2010). Survey of reproductive host plants of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt, including new host records. Entomological News, 121, 456–465. https://doi.org/10.3157/021.121.0507

      Bayhan, E., Ulusoy, M. R., & Brown, J. K. (2006). Host range, distribution, and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci biotype (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) in Turkey. Journal of Pest Science, 79, 233–240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-006-0139-4

      Bethke, J. A., Byrne, F. J., Hodges, G. S., McKenzie, C. L., & Shatters Jr, R. G. (2009). First record of the Q biotype of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in Guatemala. Phytoparasitica, 37, 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-008-0009-0

      Byrne, D. N. (1999). Migration and dispersal by the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 97, 309–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1923(99)00074-x

      CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International), online. Datasheet Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly). https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/8927

      CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International), online. Datasheet Bemisia tabaci MEAM10 (silverleaf whitefly). https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/8925

      Cohen, A. C., Henneberry, T. J., & Chu, C. C. (1996). Geometric relationships between whitefly feeding behavior and vascular bundle arrangements. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 78, 135–144.142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.1996.tb00774.x

      Cohen, S., Kern, J., Harpaz, I., & Ben-Joseph, R. (1988). Epidemiological studies of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in the Jordan Valley, Israel. Phytoparasitica, 16, 25527259. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02979527

      Coudriet, D. L., Prabhaker, N., Kishaba, A. N., & Meyerdirk, D. E. (1985). Variation in developmental rate on different host and overwintering of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Environmental Entomology, 14, 516–51519. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/14.4.516

      De Barro, P. J., Liu, S.-S., Boykin, L. M., & Dinsdale, A. B. (2011). Bemisia tabaci: A statement of species status. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 1–150419. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-112,408-085504

      de Moraes, L. A., Marubayashi, J. M., Yuki, V. A., Ghanim, M., Bello, V. H., De Marchi, B. R., … Pavan, M. A. (2017). New invasion of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean species in Brazil associated to ornamental plants. Phytoparasitica, 45, 517–525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-017-0607-9

      DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), online. UK Risk Register Details for Bemisia tabaci non-European populations. https://planthealthportal.defra.gov.uk/pests-and-diseases/uk-plant-health-risk-register/viewPestRisks.cfm?cslref=13756&riskId=13756

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. EFSA Journal, 11(4), 3162. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3162

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. EFSA Journal, 11(4), 3162. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3162

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), Bragard, C., Chatzivassiliou, E., Di Serio, F., dos Santos Baptista, P. C., Gonthier, P., Jaques Miret, J. A., Justesen, A. F., MacLeod, A., Magnusson, C. S., Milonas, P., Navas-Cortes, J. A., Parnell, S., Reignault, P. L., Stefani, E., Thulke, H.-H., Van der Werf, W., Vicent Civera, A., Yuen, J., Zappal_a, L., Debode, J., Manceau, C., Gardi, C., Mosbach-Schulz, O., & Potting, R. (2022a). Scientific report on the commodity risk assessment of specified species of Lonicera potted plants from Turkey. EFSA Journal, 20(1), 7014. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2022.7014

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), Bragard, C., Chatzivassiliou, E., Di Serio, F., Baptista, P., Gonthier, P., Jaques Miret, J. A., Fejer Justesen, A., MacLeod, A., Magnusson, C. S., Milonas, P., Navas-Cortes, J. A., Parnell, S., Reignault, P. L., Stefani, E., Thulke, H.-H., Van der Werf, W., Vicent Civera, A., Yuen, J., Zappal_a, L., Debode, J., Manceau, C., Gardi, C., Mosbach-Schulz, O., & Potting, R. (2022b). Scientific Opinion on the commodity risk assessment of Jasminum polyanthum unrooted cuttings from Uganda. EFSA Journal, 20(5), 7300. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2022.7300

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), Bragard, C., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Di Serio, F., Gonthier, P., Jacques, M.-A., Jaques Miret, J. A., Justesen, A. F., MacLeod, A. F., Magnusson, C. S., Milonas, P., Navas-Cortes, J. A., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Reignault, P. L., Thulkem H.-H., Van der Werf, W., Vicent Civera, A., Zappal_a, L., G_omez, P., Lucchi, A., Urek, G., Tramontini, S., Mosbach-Schulz, O., de la Pe ~ na, E., & Yuen, J. (2021). Scientific Opinion on the commodity risk assessment of Persea americana from Israel. EFSA Journal, 19(2), 6354. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6354

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). online. Bemisia tabaci (BEMITA). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/BEMITA

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2004). PM 7/35. Bemisia tabaci. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 34, 155–157.

      EUROPHYT, online. European Union Notification System for Plant Health Interceptio–s - EUROPHYT. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/plant_health_biosecurity/europhyt/index_en.htm

      Gerling, D., Horowitz, A. R., & Baumgaertner, J. (1986). Autecology of Bemisia tabaci. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 17, 5–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(86)90022-8

      Kanakala, S., & Ghanim, M. (2019). Global genetic diversity and geographical distribution of Bemisia tabaci and its bacterial endosymbionts. PloS one, 14(3), e0213946. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213946

      Khatun, M. F., Jahan, S. H., Lee, S., & Lee, K. Y. (2018). Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of the Bemisia tabaci species complex in Bangladesh. Acta Tropica, 187, 28–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.07.021

      Li, S. J., Xue, X., Ahmed, M. Z., Ren, S. X., Du, Y. Z., Wu, J. H., Cuthbertson, A. G. S., & Qiu, B. L. (2011). Host plants and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) in China. Insect Science, 18, 101–120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01395.x

      McKenzie, C. L., Bethke, J. A., Byrne, F. J., Chamberlin, J. R., Dennehy, T. J., Dickey, A. M., … Shatters Jr, R. G. (2012). Distribution of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in North America after the Q invasion. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(3), 753–766. https://doi.org/10.1603/EC11337

      Norman, J. W., Stansty, D. G., Ellsworth, P. A., & Toscano, N. C. P. C. (1995). Management of silverleaf whitefly: A comprehensive manual on the biology, economic impact and control tactics. USDA/CSREES Grant Pub. 93-EPIX-1-0102. 13 pp.

      Paulson, G. S., & Beardsley, J. W. (1985). Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) egg pedicel insertion into host plant stomata. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78, 506–508. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/78.4.506

      Price, J. F., & Taborsky, D. (1992). Movement of immature Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia leaves. The Florida Entomologist, 75, 151–153. https://doi.org/10.2307/3495495

      Ren, S.-X., Wang, Z.-Z., Qiu, B.-L., & Xiao, Y. (2001). The pest status of Bemisia tabaci in China and non-chemical control strategies. Insect Science, 8, 279–288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2001.tb00453.x

      Samin, N., Ghahari, H., & Behnood, S. (2015). A contribution to the knowledge of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Khorasan and Semnan Provinces, Iran. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 50(2), 287–295. https://doi.org/10.1556/038.50.2015.2.12

      Shatters Jr, R. G., Powell, C. A., Boykin, L. M., Liansheng, H. E., & McKenzie, C. L. (2009). Improved DNA barcoding method for Bemisia tabaci and related Aleyrodidae: development of universal and Bemisia tabaci biotype-specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I polymerase chain reaction primers. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(2), 750–758. https://doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0236

      Paulson, G. S., & Beardsley, J. W. (1985). Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) egg pedicel insertion into host plant stomata. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78, 506–508. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/78.4.506

      Price, J. F., & Taborsky, D. (1992). Movement of immature Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia leaves. The Florida Entomologist, 75, 151–153. https://doi.org/10.2307/3495

      Ren, S.-X., Wang, Z.-Z., Qiu, B.-L., & Xiao, Y. (2001). The pest status of Bemisia tabaci in China and non-chemical control strategies. Insect Science, 8, 279–288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2001.tb0045

      TRACES-NT. (online). TRAde Control and Expert System.

      Walker, G. P., Perring, T. M., & Freeman, T. P. (2009). Life history, functional anatomy, feeding and mating behaviour. In Stansly, P. A. & Naranjo, S. E. (eds.), Bemisia: Bionomics and management of a global pest. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp. 109–162_43.x.

      A.2 Begomoviruses

      A.2.1 Organism information

      Name of the organisms in the cluster

      Pepper golden mosaic virus (PEPGMV)

      Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV0)

      Tomato severe leaf curl virus (TOSLCV)

      Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV0)

      Reasons for clustering: The above listed viruses belong in the same genus (Begomovirus), and they share the same biology and epidemiology characteristics that affect the risk they pose for EU.

      Group

      Virus and viroids

      Geminiviridae

      Begomovirus

      Regulated status

      Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV), pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) and tomato severe leaf curl virus (ToSLCV) are regulated as quarantine pests (as a non-EU begomoviruses) in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072, ANNEX II, Part A.

      Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is regulated as an RNQP in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072, ANNEX IV, Part I.

      Pest status in Guatemala

      Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV): according to EPPO GD PepGMV is present in Guatemala, and in the neighbouring countries while according to NPPO of Guatemala PepGMV is not known to occur in Guatemala (Dossier section 5.0).

      Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV): according to NPPO of Guatemala PHYVV0 is present in Guatemala (Dossier section 3.0).

      Tomato severe leaf curl virus (ToSLCV): according to NPPO of Guatemala TOSLCV is present in Guatemala (Dossier section 3.0).

      Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV): according to EPPO GD TYLCV is not present in Guatemala, while according to CABI is present.

      Uncertainties: The limited number of publications from Guatemala can lead to an underestimation of the number of viruses present. For Pepper golden mosaic (PepGMV) virus there is an uncertainty on the pest status in Guatemala. No specific surveys are carried out.

      Pest status in the EU Not relevant as EU quarantine or regulated pests.
      Host status on Petunia sp./Calibrachoa sp. Virus name Petunia/Calibrachoa host status Solanaceae host plants
      Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) No data tomato, pepper, tobacco
      Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) No data tomato, pepp
      Tomato severe leaf curl virus (ToSLCV) Petunia is a natural host tomato
      Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) Petunia is a natural host tomato, potato, pepper, tobacco

      Uncertainties:

      There are no records that Petunia sp. or Calibrachoa sp. plants are hosts of PepGMV and PHYVV and that Calibrachoa sp. plants are hosts of ToSLCV and TYLCV. However, begomoviruses infecting solanaceous species are expected to have an extended host range especially within the Solanaceae family (Hancinský et al., 2021; Devendran et al., 2022). Therefore, Petunia sp. and Calibrachoa sp. are likely to be host plants of all these viruses.

      PRA information

      Available Pest Risk Assessments:

      – Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory (Health (PLH), 2013).

      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology

      Transmission:

      Begomoviruses are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex most probably in a circulative, non-propagative manner. The minimum acquisition access period (AAP) and inoculation access period ranges from 10 to 60 min with increasing frequency of transmission when the AAP is extended. Following acquisition, some begomoviruses are retained in the whitefly vector for a period of several weeks up to the entire lifespan (Ran Rosen et al., 2015). For TYLCV, a single insect is capable of acquiring and transmitting the virus to infect tomato plants. Even nymphs can ingest and transmit begomoviruses. All evidence reported so far supports that infectious begomoviruses are not transovarially passed onto the insect progeny (EFSA, 2013). Most of the B. tabaci species complex members may transmit most, if not all, begomoviruses; however, the transmission efficiencies vary significantly among different B. tabaci species and sometimes among different populations of the same species (EFSA, 2013; Ran Rosen et al., 2015).

      Like all plant viruses that systemically infect their host, begomoviruses can be also transmitted via the vegetative propagation material. The only begomovirus for which seed transmission has been proved is tomato leaf curl New Delhi in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) (Gomathi Devi et al., 2023). There are no other means of begomoviruses transmission.

      Uncertainty on transmission

      Seed transmission of the begomoviruses in Petunia sp or Calibrachoa sp.

      Host range and distribution of host plants in the environment:

      The natural crop-hosts of PepGMV include pepper (Capsicum annum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa), cucurbits (Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita pepo var. moschata, C. pepo, C. argyrosperma and Sechium edule), tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) as well as Erythrina spp., the latter being a member of the Fabaceae family. and Capsicum frutescens are experimental hosts of the virus. The weeds Datura stramonium and D. metel are wild experimental hosts of the virus (EPPO GD; Castro et al., 2013; Holguín-Peña et al., 2004; McLaughlin, et al., 2008; Méndez-Lozano and Rivera-Bustamante, 2001).

      The natural crop-hosts of PHYVV include pepper (Capsicum annum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa). Among wild species PHYVV is infecting Nicotiana glauca, Solanum elaeagnifolium, Solanum nigrescens and S. rostrarum (Melendrez-Bojorquez et al., 2016; Méndez-Lozano and Rivera-Bustamante, 2001) ToSLCV is known to infect tomato among cultivated species and Datura stramonium among weeds (Holguín-Peña, 2003).

      TYLCV has a large host range including species in many families (Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Convolvulaceae, Cruciferae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae, Primulaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae and Urticaceae) (CABI, 2012; Papayiannis et al., 2011). Among cultivated plants it infects tomato, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), petunia (Petunia hybrida) and lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum). Common weeds infected by TYLCV are Conyza sumatrensis, Convolvulus sp., Cynanchum acutum, Cuscuta sp., Chenopodium murale, Datura stramonium, Dittrichia viscosa, Malva parviflora and Solanum nigrum which either exhibit severe symptoms or remain asymptomatic (CABI, 2012; Jorda et al., 2001).

      All of these begomoviruses are expected to have a host range that includes more species especially within the Solanaceae family including also additional wild species (Devendran et al., 2022; Hancinský et al., 2021; Prajapat et al., 2013).

      Uncertainty on host range

      The actual host range of most begomoviruses (besides TYLCV) is largely unknown.

      Ecology and biology of the vectors:

      B. tabaci is present and widespread in Guatemala (EPPO GD).

      B. tabaci is a highly polyphagous invasive species complex and can reach high populations on Solanaceae crops especially during warm weather conditions (Jiao et al., 2012).

      Symptoms on Petunia/Calibrachoa:

      Symptoms of begomovirus infections in plants consist of leaf curling or vein yellowing or green to bright yellow mosaic symptoms and leaf deformation. Early infections result in severe growth reduction, stunting and deterioration of the entire plant and the entire loss of the crop while infections at later stages of development are often mild (EFSA, 2013). Petunia plants infected with begomoviruses are expected to exhibit symptoms easy to be detected by an inspector such as leaf chlorosis and distortion, apical distortion and swellings of the veins on the underside of the leaf; plants infected when young may not develop flowers (described on petunia by TYLCV; Sikron et al., 1995). Upward leaf curling, yellowing and vein yellowing or yellow mosaic, and size reduction in leaves have been also described on petunia by another begomovirus, Chilli leaf curl virus (Al-Shihi et al., 2014). However, there is an asymptomatic phase of all systemic virus infections. Temperature and light intensity are expected to affect the speed of systemic infection (usually within 2 to 3 weeks) and disease severity.

      Evidence that the commodity can be a pathway Unrooted cuttings of Petunia sp. or Calibrachoa sp. can be systemically infected by begomoviruses and/or infested by viruliferous whiteflies.
      Surveillance information There are no targeted surveys for begomoviruses in Guatemala.

      A.2.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.2.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      The natural host range of begomoviruses includes members of the Solanaceae but also from other families. These viruses are naturally transmitted by B. tabaci (Brown, 1989) and both the viruses and its vector are present in Guatemala (CABI, EPPO; online). Most begomovirus infections are associated with pepper and tomato plants. However, some of them can also infect other cultivated plants, while weeds can also act as a reservoir for several begomoviruses (Prajapat et al., 2013). The main pathway of entrance of the virus from the surrounding environment in the nursery is through viruliferous B. tabaci insects. Defects in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable whiteflies to enter, as well as hitchhiking whiteflies on persons or materials entering the greenhouse.

      Uncertainties:
      • Presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.
      • Infection (virus) and infestation (vector) pressure in the surroundings.
      • Presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.

      A.2.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Plant material (cuttings) for Petunia/Calibrachoa mother plants used for the production of unrooted cutting originate from the Netherlands, Germany, El Salvador and Israel. The above listed non-EU begomoviruses are not present in the Netherlands and Germany, but TYLCV is present in Israel and there are not surveys to confirm the absence of the other begomoviruses in El Salvador and Israel. In all countries a certification scheme is in place for Petunia/Calibrachoa, however the details are not known. Incoming mother plants are not tested in the nursery for begomovirus at the start of the production (Dossier section 1.0, 4.0, 5.0).

      Other solanaceous and non-solanaceous plants are produced in the same nursery and their cultivation rotates within the nursery greenhouses/compartments. No data are provided for the identity, proportion, origin and phytosanitary status of other than Petunia/Calibrachoa plants produced in the same nursery.

      Uncertainties:
      • The detail of the Petunia/Calibrachoa certification schemes in the non-EU countries.
      • The proportion of Petunia/Calibrachoa mother plants coming from non-EU countries.
      • The presence of begomoviruses in El Salvador and Israel.
      • The origin and the host status for begomoviruses and the phytosanitary status of other plant species (solanaceous, non-solanaceous) entering the same nursery.
      • The phytosanitary requirements for imports into Guatemala.

      A.2.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are cultivated in dedicated compartments for their cultivation with no other plant species. However, other plants (solanaceous and non-solanaceous) possible hosts of begomoviruses are cultivated and B. tabaci could be present in other greenhouses/compartments of the nursery. Viruliferous B. tabaci could spread begomoviruses between the different or within the same greenhouse/compartment. Begomoviruses may also spread by vegetative propagation of infected mother plants.

      Uncertainties:
      • The presence and density of the begomoviruses and B. tabaci in the nursery.
      • The presence and the host status for begomoviruses of other plant species (solanaceous, non-solanaceous) growing in the same nursery.

      A.2.3 Information from interceptions

      In the EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT database there are no records of interceptions of Begomoviruses on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. from third countries or on any other plant from Guatemala.

      A.2.4 Risk Mitigation Measure applied in the nurseries

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      Plants in the greenhouse are protected from B. tabaci that may enter from the surrounding environment. B. tabaci may be introduced through defects in the greenhouse or as hitchhikers on greenhouse staff. Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      • Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Each unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia spp.and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of viruses.

      Uncertainties:

      Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment N

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Description:

      The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from EU (Germany, The Netherlands) and non-EU countries (El Salvador, Israel) and are reported to be certified.

      Evaluation:

      The material originated from non-EU countries (Israel and El Salvador) is certified, hence expected to comply with the respective phytosanitary legislation. If begomovirus monitoring (inspections, testing) is included in the certification schemes, Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. plants are expected to be free of symptoms and tested negative for begomoviruses.

      Uncertainties:

      • The details of the certification schemes and if begomovirus monitoring is included in those schemes.
      • The phytosanitary status of the imported material from the non-EU countries.

      Crop rotation N

      Description:

      The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined for export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.

      Disinfect irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whiteflies, shoreflies and other flying insects.

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of B. tabaci and of begomoviruses. However, early infections cannot be detected due to the lack of symptoms.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.
      • The length of the latent period till the expression of symptoms.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 3.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides are effective against the vector B. tabaci. However, B. tabaci and especially some species of the complex (e.g. MED) are known for having developed resistance to some insecticides.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficacy and timing of the applied insecticide are not known.

      Sampling and testing Y

      Description:

      Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. plants are laboratory tested using serological based techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the lab each 6–8 weeks to test the virus.

      Evaluation: There are not antibodies and/or serological techniques (immunostrips) available against the above mentioned begomoviruses except for TYLCV. Serological techniques may fail to detect early infections where virus concentration is below the detection limit of method used.

      There is a molecular (PCR) generic test able to detect begomoviruses including PHYVV, PepGMV, ToSLCV and TYLCV. However, according to the dossier no molecular method is used.

      Uncertainties:

      The use and the efficiency of serological techniques for the detection of TYLCV.

      Packing and handling procedures N

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber.

      The shipment of Petunia sp. and Calibrachoa sp. cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Official supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pests and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of B. tabaci and as consequence the nursery will be under official control according the point 7 c, Annex VII of the EU Reg. 2019/2072 (‘the plants have been subjected to an effective treatment ensuring the eradication of Bemisia tabaci and the other vectors of the Union quarantine pests and have been found free thereof prior to export’).

      Once begomoviruses can be transmitted by a single B. tabaci individual, some infections may occur before the development of a detectable whitefly population. Infected Petunia sp. And Calibrachoa sp. plants are expected to exhibit distinct symptoms to be detected however, these symptoms are not obvious in the early stages of infection. Especially in large plants and high canopy densities the infected plants that are expected to show a more dwarfed appearance may be covered by the neighbouring, full-in-size healthy plants.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided.

      Evaluation:

      Surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of the viruses and their vectors. However, no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of the surveillance scheme.

      A.2.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.2.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • PepGMV and PHYVV has not been reported to infect Petunia/Calibrachoa.
      • Begomoviruses has not been reported on Petunia/Calibrachoa in Guatemala.
      • Begomoviruses have never been intercepted on produce from Guatemala.
      • Certification system for mother plants in non- EU countries ensure the absence of begomoviruses in the source material.
      • Low infection pressure (prevalence of host plants) of begomoviruses in the surrounding environment.
      • No infection pressure (prevalence of host plants) of begomoviruses in other greenhouses/compartments of the nursery.
      • Transfer of infected B. tabaci from virus-sources (infected host plants) in the surrounding environment to the greenhouse plants is very difficult because of insect proof structure and its efficient inspection of the greenhouse and the strict hygienic measure in place preventing the natural and human-assisted movement of the whiteflies.
      • Petunia/Calibrachoa is not a preferred host for B. tabaci.
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective and infected plants by begomoviruses or B. tabaci individuals present in the nurseries are expected to be easily detected.
      • Application of the insecticides have a good efficacy against whiteflies.
      • At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms are easy to be detected.
      • tabaci is not a good flyer and dispersal is mainly dependent on wind or human-assisted movement.
      • The inspection regime is effective (detection and treatment).
      • Physical separation of different lots offers in case of infestation the restriction of the affected plants.

      A.2.5.2 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      • Even if there is no evidence that Petunia/Calibrachoa is a host plant for PepGMV and PHYVV, given the sensitivity of solanaceous hosts it is likely that petunia/calibrachoa is a suitable host plant.
      • Solanaceous are very sensitive to begomovirus infections and infections are reported in Guatemala.
      • High population pressure in highly preferred host (e.g. abandoned infected field of highly preferable host close to the greenhouse).
      • Certification system for mother plants in non- EU countries does not ensure the absence of begomoviruses in the source material.
      • Presence of B. tabaci and begomoviruses in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure or whiteflies hitchhike on greenhouse staff or materials.
      • Transmission of begomoviruses via vegetative propagated material increases the probability of their entry and establishment in the nursery on Petunia/Calibrachoa or other host plant species.
      • B. tabaci has developed insecticide resistance to the applied insecticides.
      • B. tabaci is widespread in GA and considering its wide host range it is likely that host plants are present in the surrounding environment.
      • Presence of whiteflies species in the environment is not monitored.
      • Early (asymptomatic) infections cannot be visually detected.

      A.2.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      The value of the median is estimated based on:
      • Solanaceous are sensitive/generic hosts for begomoviruses, therefore petunia/calibrachoa is expected to be host also for PepGMV and PHYVV.
      • There are no records of interceptions from Guatemala.
      • The protective effect of the greenhouse structure.
      • The insecticides treatments are moderately effective against B. tabaci.
      • The high density of the mother plants in the nurseries before cutting prevents the detection of infected plants.

      A.2.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile / interquartile range)

      • There is low uncertainty about the protective effect of the greenhouse structure.

      A.2.6 Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for begomoviruses

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.3) and pest freedom (Table A.4).

      TABLE A.3. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation by begomoviruses per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 0 2 5 12 40
      EKE 0.0275 0.0895 0.219 0.542 1.07 1.87 2.82 5.31 8.99 11.6 15.4 20.1 26.3 32.4 40.1
      • The EKE results is the BetaGeneral (0.779, 15.279, 0, 170) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.4.

      TABLE A.4. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of begomoviruses per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.3.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9960 9988 9995 9998 10,000
      EKE results 9960 9968 9974 9980 9985 9988 9991 9995 9997 9998.1 9998.9 9999.5 9999.8 9999.9 10,000.0
      • The EKE results are the fitted values.
      image

      FIGURE A . 2 (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for begomoviruses complex (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (C) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags

      A.2.7 Reference list

      Ala-Poikela, M., Svensson, E., Rojas, A., Horko, T., Paulin, L., Valkonen, J.P.T., & Kvarnheden, A., (2005). Genetic diversity and mixed infections of begomoviruses infecting tomato, pepper and cucurbit crops in Nicaragua. Plant Pathology, 54, 448–459. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01226.x

      Al-Shihi, A. A., Akhtar, S., & Khan, A. J. (2014). Identification of chili leaf curl virus causing leaf curl disease of Petunia in Oman. Plant Diseases, 98(4), 572. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-13-0678-PDN

      Barboza, N., Blanco-Meneses, M., Esker, P., Moriones, E., & Inoue-Nagata, A. K., (2018). Distribution and diversity of begomoviruses in tomato and sweet pepper plants in Costa Rica. Annals of Applied Biology, 172, 20–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12398

      Brown, J. K. (1989). A whitefly-transmitted Geminivirus from peppers with tigré disease. Plant Diseases, 73, 610. https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-73-0610E

      Brown, J. K., Idris, A. M., Ostrow, K. M., Goldberg, N., French, R., & Stenger, D. C., (2005). Genetic and phenotypic variation of the pepper golden mosaic virus complex. Phytopathology, 95, 1217–1224. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-95-1217

      Carrillo-Tripp, J., Lozoya-Gloria, E., & Rivera-Bustamante, R.F. (2007). Symptom remission and specific resistance of pepper plants after infection by pepper golden mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 97, 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-97-0051

      Castro, R. M., Moreira, L., Rojas, M. R., Gilbertson, R. L., Hernández, E., Mora, F., & Ramírez, P. (2013). Occurrence of squash yellow mild mottle virus and pepper golden mosaic virus in potential new hosts in Costa Rica. The Plant Pathology Journal, 29, 285–293. https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.12.2012.0182

      Czosnek, H., Hariton-Shalev, A., Sobol, I., Gorovits, R., & Ghanim, M. (2017). The incredible journey of begomoviruses in their whitefly vector. Viruses, 9(10), 273. https://doi.org/10.3390/v9100273

      De La Torre, R., Lotrakul, P., Valverde, R. A., Sim, J., & Gomez, A. (1998). Identification of a Geminivirus infecting pepper in Costa Rica. Phytopathology, 88, S21–S21.

      Devendran, R., Kumar, M., Ghosh, D., Yogindran, S., Karim, M.J., & Chakraborty, S., (2022). Capsicum-infecting begomoviruses as global pathogens: Host–virus interplay, pathogenesis, and management. Trends Microbiology, 30, 170–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2021.05.007

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health). (2013). Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. EFSA Journal, 11(4), 3162. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3162

      EUROPHYT. (online). European Union Notification System for Plant Health Interceptions – EUROPHYT. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/plant_health_biosecurity/europhyt/index_en.htm

      Gomathi Devi, R., Jothika, C., Sankari, A., Lakshmi, S., Malathi, V. G., Renukadevi, P. (2023). Seed transmission of begomoviruses: a potential threat for bitter gourd cultivation. Plants, 12, 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061396

      Hančinský, R., Mihálik, D., Mrkvová, M., Candresse, T., & Glasa, M. (2020). Plant viruses infecting Solanaceae family members in the cultivated and wild environments: A Review. Plants, 9, 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9050667

      Holguín-Peña, R. J., Juárez, R. V., & Rivera-Bustamante, R. F. (2004). Pepper golden mosaic virus affecting tomato crops in the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. Plant Diseases, 88, 221–221. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.2.221A

      Holguín-Peña, R. J., Vázquez Juárez, R., & Rivera-Bustamante, R. F. (2003). First report of a Geminivirus associated with leaf curl in Baja California Peninsula tomato fields. Plant Diseases, 87, 1397–1397. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.11.1397A

      Jiao, X. G., Xie, W., Wang, S. L., Wu, Q. J., Zhou, L., Pan, H. P., et al. (2012). Host preference and nymph performance of B and Q putative species of Bemisia tabaci on three host plants. Journal of Pest Sciences, 85, 423–430. 10.1007/s10340-012-0441-2

      Jordá, C., Font, I., Martínez, P., Juarez, M., Ortega, A., & Lacasa, A. (2001). Current status and new natural hosts of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in Spain. Plant Disease, 85(4), 445–445.

      Lotrakul, P., Valverde, R.A., De La Torre, R., Sim, J., & Gomez, A. (2000). Occurrence of a strain of Texas pepper virus in Tabasco and Habanero pepper in Costa Rica. Plant Diseases, 84, 168–172. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.2.168

      McLaughlin, P. D., McLaughlin, W. A., Maxwell, D. P., & Roye, M. E. (2008). Identification of begomoviruses infecting crops and weeds in Belize. Plant Viruses, 2, 58–63.

      Medina-Ramos, G., Almaráz, R., Bujanos Muñiz, R., Guevara-Gonzalez, R., Tierranegra-Garcia, N., Guevara-Olvera, L., Chavira, M., & Pacheco, I. (2008). Co-transmission of pepper huasteco yellow vein virus and pepper golden mosaic virus in chili pepper by Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). Journal of Entomology, 5, 176–184. https://doi.org/10.3923/je.2008.176.184

      Melendrez-Bojorquez, N., Magallanes-Tapia, M. A., Armenta-Anaya, C., Camacho-Beltrán, E., Rodríguez-Negrete, E. A., Leyva-López, N. E., & Méndez-Lozano, J. (2016). Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus associated to sweet pepper disease in Sinaloa, Mexico. Plant Diseases, 100. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-16-0226-PDN

      Méndez-Lozano, J., Rivera-Bustamante, R. F., Fauquet, C. M., & la Torre-Almaraz, R. D. (2001). Pepper huasteco virus and pepper golden mosaic virus are geminiviruses affecting tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa) crops in Mexico. Plant Diseases, 85, 1291–1291. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.12.1291A

      Méndez-Lozano, J., Torres-Pacheco, I., Fauquet, C. M., & Rivera-Bustamante, R. F. (2003). Interactions between geminiviruses in a naturally occurring mixture: pepper huasteco virus and pepper golden mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 93,, 270–277. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.3.270

      Papayiannis, L. C., Katis, N. I., Idris, A. M., & Brown, J. K. (2011). Identification of weed hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Cyprus. Plant Disease, 95(2), 120–125. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-10-0346

      Prajapat R., Marwal, A., & Gaur, R. K. (2014). Begomovirus associated with alternative host weeds: A critical appraisal. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 47(2), 157–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235408.2013.805497

      Paximadis, M., Idris, A. M., Torres-Jerez, I., Villarreal, A., Rey, M. E. C., Brown, J. K. (1999). Characterization of tobacco geminiviruses in the old and new world. Archives of Virology, 144, 703–717. https://doi.org/10.1007/s007050050537

      Rosen, R., Kanakala, S., Kliot, A., Pakkianathan, B. C., Abu Farich, B., Santana-Magal, N., Elimelech, M., Kontsedalov, S., Lebedev, G., Cilia, M., & Ghanim, M. (2015). Persistent, circulative transmission of begomoviruses by whitefly vectors. Current Opinion in Virology, 15, 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2015.06.008

      Sikron, N., Cohen, J., Shoval, S., & Gera, A. (1995). Virus diseases in Petunia. Phytoparasitica, 23, 273.

      Zerbini, F. M., Briddon, R. W., Idris, A., Martin, D. P., Moriones, E., Navas-Castillo, J., Rivera-Bustamante, R., Roumagnac, P., & Varsani, A. (2017). ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Geminiviridae. Journal of Genetics Virology, 98, 131–133. https://doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000738

      A.3 Eotetranychus lewisi

      A.3.1 Organism information

      Taxonomic information

      Current valid scientific name: Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor, 1943).

      Synonyms: Tetranychus lewisi

      Name used in the EU legislation: Eotetranychus lewisi

      Order: Acarida

      Family: Tetranychidae

      Common name: Lewis spider mite

      Name used in the dossier: Eotetranychus lewisi

      Group Mites
      EPPO code EOTELE
      Regulated status Quarantine pest in the EU (Annex II Part A)
      Pest status in Guatemala Present (EPPO, online)
      Pest status in the EU No relevant as a quarantine pest.
      Host status on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp

      Eotetranychus lewisi is a pest of 86 plant species belonging to 26 different families (EPPO, online; EFSA, 2017). Although this mite has not been reported to feed on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. plants, given its polyphagous nature including Solanaceous host plants (Solanum elaeagnifolium, Solanum sp.), the Panel assumes that Petunia/Calibrachoa are suitable host plants.

      Uncertainties: the host status of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. plants to Eotetranychus lewisi.

      PRA information

      A pest risk assessment of Eotetranychus lewisi has been prepared by EFSA (2017).

      EFSA, 2017. Pest risk assessment of Eotetranychus lewisi for the EU territory. EFSA Journal, 15(10), 4878.

      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology Eotetranychus lewisi is a polyphagous spider mite that feeds upon the leaves and fruits of more than 86 plant species (EPPO, online). On most host plants the mite feeds on the underside of leaves, mostly close to the main veins. As the infestation increases E. lewisi spread to all parts of the leaves (EPPO, 2006; EFSA, 2014). The life cycle of the mite includes five stages: egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult (EFSA, 2014). The females start their oviposition in less than 24 hours after emergence and deposited five eggs per day on average at temperatures from 17°C to 23°C (McGregor, 1943). The eggs hatch after 3.33 days while the larval and nymphal developmental period is 3.60 and 3.65 days, respectively, on strawberry leaves at 25°C (Kaur and Zalom, 2017). According to Lai and Lin (2005) on poinsettia leaves at 26°C the egg hatching takes an average of 2.5 days while the larval and nymphal stages last 1.8 and 3.7 days, respectively. The fecundity of E. lewisi is 41.25 eggs/mite at 25°C (Kaur and Zalom, 2017). The lower development temperature threshold of E. lewisi from egg to adult is between 8.3°C and 9.0°C while the upper development threshold is 28.2°C (Lai and Lin, 2005). Development from egg to adult takes 8.0 days on poinsettia leaves at 26°C (Lai and Lin, 2005) and 10.58 days on strawberry leaves at 25°C (Kaur and Zalom, 2017). The life cycle of the mite is completed in 19.35 days on strawberry leaves at 25°C (Kaur and Zalom, 2017). The egg to adult survival rate of E. lewisi on poinsettia leaves at 26°C is 85% but drops considerably to approximately 30% at 28°C (Lai and Lin, 2005). Females live for 16 days at 24°C (Lai and Lin, 2005). In southern Europe, the E. lewisi can complete over 10 generations per year (EFSA, 2017). Body length ranges from 0.270 to 0.360 mm.
      Symptoms Main type of symptoms Symptoms of infestation vary according to the host plant. On poinsettia, the mite feeds on the underside of the leaves and causes a speckled or peppered appearance on the foliage. The colour of the leaves become pale as the chlorophyl is lost. When there is a heavy infestation profuse webbing is produced especially around the flowering parts. Extensive feeding cause leaf drop. (Doucette, 1962). On citrus, the mite feeding either on the fruit or the leaf, causes pigment extraction which results in a stippling of the rind and epidermis with paler spots (McGregor, 1943). Heavy infestations cause silvering on lemons and silvering or russeting on oranges (Jeppson et al., 1975). On strawberry, causes chlorosis and bronzing of the leaves, and at high densities a reduction in fruit production (EFSA, 2014). On papaya, feeding causes chlorosis and distortion of the young leaves. In severe infestations, the young leaves lose their laminas, while the leaf veins remain (EPPO, 2023).
      Presence of asymptomatic plants No asymptomatic period is known to occur.
      Confusion with other pathogens/pests

      Eotetranychus lewisi is similar in colour to Tetranychus urticae but it is a little smaller and narrower with several small greenish spots, in contrast to Tetranychus urticae that has only two greenish spots (Gilrein, 2006).

      A diagnostic protocol for E. lewisi is given by EPPO (2006).

      Host plant range

      Eotetranychus lewisi is a highly polyphagous pest. The most significant hosts are several species of Citrus (C. limon, C. paradisi, C. sinensis), peaches (Prunus persica), the castor oil plants (Ricinus communis), Fragaria x ananassa and Euphorbia spp. Many other cultivated and wild plant species have also been reported as host plants like olive trees, cotton, figs, papaws and vines as well as several tree species like acacias, pines and aspens (EPPO, online; EFSA, 2017).

      It should be noted that the report of a plant species as a host of E. lewisi does not necessarily mean that the mite can complete its life cycle on the species or that it can cause economic damage. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the exact host status of some of the reported host plant species (EFSA, 2017).

      What life stages could be expected on the commodity

      Eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults may be present on host plants.

      No information for this pest on Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. plants is available.

      Surveillance information E. lewisi is reported to be present in Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivations in the highlands of the country. There is no information of surveillance in the surrounding environment of the nurseries.

      A.3.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.3.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      E. lewisi is a pest of many plants of various families and it is reported to be present in Guatemala, especially in the highlands. Given the wide host range of this pest it is possible that local populations of E. lewisi may be present in the neighbouring environment. Spider mites are dispersed by wind currents in the field (EPPO, 2023), so they may enter the nursery from host plants that might be present in the surrounding environment. Defect in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable mites to enter, as well as hitchhiking on persons or material entering the greenhouse.

      Uncertainties:
      • Presence of defect in the greenhouse structure.
      • Abundance of E. lewisi in the surroundings.
      • Presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.

      A.3.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Mother plants used for the production of unrooted cutting originate from the Netherlands, Germany, El Salvador and Israel. E. lewisi is present in El Salvador. E. lewisi could be introduced with mother plants from El Salvador.

      Uncertainties:
      • The abundance of the species in El Salvador
      • The host status of E. lewisi on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp.

      A.3.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      When present, mites searching for food sources can spread from infested host plants within the nursery. Movement within the nursery is limited and mainly related to hitchhiking.

      Uncertainties:
      • there are no uncertainties.

      A.3.3 Information from interceptions

      In the EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT database there are no records of interceptions of E. lewisi on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. from third countries or on any other plant from Guatemala.

      A.3.4 Risk Mitigation Measures applied in the nurseries

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      Plants in the greenhouse are protected from dispersing E. lewisi that may enter from the surrounding environment. E. lewisi may be introduced through defects in the greenhouse. Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      • Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Same unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of mites.

      Uncertainties:

      Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment Y

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Evaluation: Growing substrate is kept free from eggs and larvae of E. lewisi.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Description:

      The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel and are reported to be certified (See Section 17)

      Evaluation:

      The species, E. lewisi is not known to be present in these countries except El Salvador.

      Uncertainties:

      The abundance of the species in El Salvador.

      Crop rotation N

      Description:

      The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined to the export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.

      Disinfect irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whitefly, shoreflies and other flying insects

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of E. lewisi adults.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 3.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides are effective against E. lewisi.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficacy of the applied insecticide and its timing is not known.

      Sampling and testing N

      Description:

      Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. plants are laboratory tested using serological based techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the lab each 6–8 weeks to test the virus.

      Packing and handling procedures N

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber

      The shipment of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Official supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of E. lewisi.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection is not known.

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      Surveillance on Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivations allows to detect E. lewisi that is present mainly in highlands of the country.

      Evaluation:

      The surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of E. lewisi. However no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of surveillance scheme.

      A.3.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.3.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are not a preferred host.
      • E. lewisi has never been intercepted on produce from Guatemala.
      • Dispersal capacity of E. lewisi is limited.
      • Low population pressure of E. lewisi in the surrounding environment, due to absence of preferred host plants.
      • Greenhouse structure is insect-proof and entrance is thus unlikely.
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective, insects are expected to be easily detected because of the typical symptoms on leaves.
      • Application of the insecticides have a good efficacy against E. lewisi.
      • At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms will be detected.

      A.3.5.2 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      • E. lewisi is present throughout Guatemala and has a wide host range, therefore it is likely that host plants are present in the surrounding environment.
      • Greenhouses are located in areas where E. lewisi is present and abundant (e.g. Citrus).
      • Presence of E. lewisi in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure.
      • Due to their small size detection is difficult.
      • Insecticide treatments are not targeting E. lewisi.

      A.3.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      • The protective effect of the greenhouse structure.
      • The insecticides treatments are effective.
      • There are no records of interceptions from Guatemala.

      A.3.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile/interquartile range))

      • The main uncertainty is the population pressure of E. lewisi in the surrounding environment.
      • High uncertainty for values below median.
      • Less uncertainty for higher values.

      A.3.6Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for E. lewisi

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.5) and pest freedom (Table A.6).

      TABLE A.5. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation by Eotetranychus lewisi per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 1 2 5 15 70
      EKE 1.00 1.01 1.03 1.12 1.37 1.89 2.69 5.39 10.4 14.4 20.6 29.0 41.0 53.4 70.1
      • Note: The EKE results is the BetaGeneral (0.46487, 47.39, 1, 1050) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.6.

      TABLE A.6. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of Eotetranychus lewisi per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.5.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9930 9985 9995 9998 9999
      EKE results 9930 9947 9959 9971 9979 9986 9990 9995 9997 9998.1 9998.6 9998.88 9998.97 9998.99 9999.00
      • Note: The EKE results are the fitted values.
      image

      FIGURE A . 3 (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for Eotetranychus lewisi complex (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (C) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags

      A.3.6 Reference list

      Doucette, C. F. (1962). The lewis mite, Eotetranychus lewisi, on greenhouse Poinsettia. Journal of Economic Entomology, 55, 139–140. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/55.1.139

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health). (2014). Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Eotetranychus lewisi. EFSA Journal, 12(7), 3776. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3776

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health). (2017). Pest risk assessment of Eotetranychus lewisi for the EU territory. EFSA Journal, 15(10), 4878. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4878

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2006). Diagnostic protocol for Eotetranychus lewisi PM 7/68 (1). EPPO Bulletin, 36(1), 161–163. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2006.00929.x

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) (online). Eotetranychus lewisi (EOTELE). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/EOTELE

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2023). Eotetranychus lewisi EPPO datasheets on pests recommended for regulation. https://gd.eppo.int

      EUROPHYT (online). Interceptions of harmful organisms in imported plants and other objects. https://food.ec.europa.eu/plants/plant-health-and-biosecurity/europhyt/interceptions_en

      Gilrein, D. (2006). Managing lewis mites on Poinsettia. https://gpnmag.com/article/managing-lewis-mites-poinsettia

      Jeppson, L. R., Keifer, H. H., & Baker, E. W. (1975). Mites injurious to economic plants. University of California Press, Berkeley (US). https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520335431

      Kaur P., & Zalom G. F. (2017). Effect of temperature on the development of Tetranychus urticae and Eotetranychus lewisi on strawberry. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(4), 441–444.

      Lai H.S., & Lin F. C. (2005). Development and population parameters of the lewis spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi, on Poinsettia. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taichung), 47, 379–390.

      McGregor, E. A. (1943). A new spider mite on citrus in southern California (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 45, 127–129.

      A.4 Epitrix species

      A.4.1 Organism information

      Name of the organisms in the cluster

      Epitrix subcrinita EPIXSU

      Epitrix cucumeris EPIXCU

      Reasons for clustering:

      The life cycle of the Epitrix species that are pests on potatoes is similar (Eyre and Giltrap, 2013).

      Group

      Common name: potato flea beetle

      Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

      Regulated status They are listed in the Commission Implementing Decision 2012/270/EU as regards emergency measures to prevent the introduction into and the spread within the Union of Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), Epitrix similaris (Gentner), Epitrix subcrinita (Lec.) and Epitrix tuberis (Gentner).
      Host status on Petunia sp./Calibrachoa sp. Species Petunia/Calibrachoa host status Solanaceae host plants
      Epitrix subcrinita It has not been reported to feed on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. plants. Main host is potato (Solanum tuberosum), but it has also been reported on many other Solanaceae plants, like several species of the genera Solanum, Physalis and Nicotiana and Capsicum.
      Epitrix cucumeris Epitrix cucumeris is a pest of Petunia spp. but it has not been reported to feed on Calibrachoa spp. Main host is potato (Solanum tuberosum), but it has also been reported on many other Solanaceae plants, like several species of the genera Solanum, Physalis and Nicotiana Capsicum and Nicotiana.
      Uncertainties: the host status of Calibrachoa spp.
      Pest status in Guatemala Epitrix subcrinita and Epitrix cucumeris according to EPPO are present in Guatemala.
      Pest status in EU No relevant as EU emergency measures pests.
      PRA information

      Available Pest Risk Assessments:

      Two pest risk analyses on Epitrix species have been prepared. The first one was prepared by EPPO (2010) and the second one by the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (2019).

      EPPO. (2010). Pest risk analysis for Epitrix species damaging potato tubers. Document 11–17790. Paris.

      PRA. (2019). Pest risk assessment of selected Epitrix species. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment. VKM Report 2019: 17.

      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology

      Dispersal: Natural spread of Epitrix species is expected to be limited because adults tend only to fly short distances when in search of a new food supply. There is considerable uncertainty as to how far they could potentially fly in search of a suitable host. (EPPO PM 9/22 (1) Epitrix species damaging potato tubers Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin (2016) 46(3), 556–566.

      Host range and distribution of host plants in the environment:

      The most significant host of E. cucumeris is potato (Solanum tuberosum), but it has also been reported many other Solanaceae as hosts plants, like several species of the genera Solanum, Physalis and Petunia as well as Capsicum annuum and Nicotiana tabacum (EPPO, online). In general, adults of Epitrix species are reported to feed on a wide range of host plants, but solanaceous plants are preferred (EFSA, 2019).

      Adults of Epitrix species are reported to feed occasionally on plants from the families Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Fabaceae particularly in periods when solanaceous crops are not available, such as spring and autumn. It should be noted that foliage feeding does not necessarily imply egg laying and larval survival. Completion of life cycle of the Epitrix species on Solanum tuberosum is well documented but there is little data for other host plant species. Thus, the host range of the species is not fully reliable.

      Ecology and biology:

      In spring when the temperature warms up the adults, which overwinter in the soil, become active. They feed on the leaves of potatoes or other host plant species and the females lay their eggs near the base of host plants in the soil., Hatching larvae move to the roots of host plants where they feed and sometimes cause severe damage. The larvae feed on the roots for 2–4 weeks and develop through several instars. When they complete their development, they stop feeding, abandon the roots and pupate in a chamber from soil particles (Boavida et al., 2019; EPPO, 2005; Eyre and Giltrap, 2013). The new adults emerge from the soil 4–10 days after pupation (EFSA, 2019) and search for plants for feeding (Boavida et al., 2019). In autumn, the adult flea beetles overwinter usually near fields that were planted with potatoes the previous season, buried in the soil or under leaf litter and other debris (Hoffman et al., 1999).

      Epitrix cucumeris has only one generation per year in Canada (Senanayake and Holliday, 1989), but field observations indicate that the species can have two or three generations per year in Portugal (EFSA, 2019). The preoviposition period is 5–6 days and the duration of the oviposition period is 35–55 days. Adults of E. cucumeris do not fly (EPPO, 2005). Adult beetles may feed on foliage from a wide variety of plants, but these plants are not always true host plants that can support larval development (PRA, 2019).

      The duration of the life cycle of Epitrix subcrinita is approximately 49.2 days at 21°C. In western Washington state Epitrix subcrinita has two generations per year (Jones, 1944).

      The adults of E. cucumeris are small black beetles, 1.6–2.0 mm long, with rows of punctures along the elytra arranged into striae and one row of white setae between elytral striae. The hind femurs are enlarged, adapted to jumping.

      The adults of E. subcrinita are small brassy dark brown beetles with rows of short white hairs across the elytra, 1.76–2.27 mm long, with testaceous antennae. The hind femurs are enlarged, adapted to jumping.

      Symptoms on Petunia/Calibrachoa:

      Adults of Epitrix species mainly feed on the upper surface of leaves of host plants and less often on the lower surface and produce typical shot-like holes with a 1–1.5 mm diameter on these leaves (EFSA, 2019; Eyre and Giltrap, 2013).

      No asymptomatic plants are known to occur.

      What life stages could be expected on the commodity Epitrix adults feeding on unrooted cuttings of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. could be associated with the commodity. However, they cause typical shot holes that are relatively easily detected and cuttings should not be acceptable for trade.
      Surveillance information There are no targeted surveys for Epitrix in Guatemala.

      A.4.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.4.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      E. cucumeris and E. subcrinita are pests of many plants of Solanaceae and of other plant families and it is reported to be present in Guatemala. Given the wide host range of these species it is possible that local populations are present in the neighbouring environment. Adults of E. subcrinita can fly and they may enter the nursery from host plants that might be present in the surrounding environment. Although adults of E. cucumeris do not fly they are able to move and they may enter the nursery from host plants that might be present in the surrounding environment. Moreover, the pest may enter the nursery from the soil that may be attached to the equipment (EPPO, 2010). Defects in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable adults to enter.

      Uncertainties:
      • Presence of defect in the greenhouse structure.
      • Abundance of Epitrix spp in the surroundings.
      • Presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.

      Taking into consideration the above evidence and uncertainties, the Panel considers that the pest can enter a greenhouse from the surrounding area.

      A.4.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Mother plants used for the production of unrooted cutting originate from the Netherlands, Germany, El Salvador and Israel. The above listed Epitrix species are not present in these countries.

      Uncertainties:
      • The presence of the species in El Salvador.

      A.4.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      When present, adults searching for food sources can spread from infested host plants within the nursery. Other host plants hosts of Epitrix adults could be present in the nurseries.

      Uncertainties:
      • There is no information on the presence of other host plants of Epitrix spp in the nurseries.

      A.4.3 Information from interceptions

      In the EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT database there are no records of interceptions of E. cucumeris and E. subcrinita on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. from third countries or on any other plant from Guatemala. Export of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. from Guatemala to EU is prohibited, therefore there are no interception records for Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. from Guatemala.

      A.4.4 Risk Mitigation Measures applied in the nurseries

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      Plants in the greenhouse are protected from dispersing Epitrix adults that may enter from the surrounding environment. Epitrix adults may be introduced through defects in the greenhouse. Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      • Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Same unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of Epitrix.

      Uncertainties:

      Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment Y

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Evaluation: Growing substrate is kept free from eggs and larvae of Epitrix.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Description:

      The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel and are reported to be certified (See Section 17).

      Evaluation:

      The species, E. cucumeris and E. subcrinita are not known to be present in these countries. They are reported from other countries in Central America.

      Uncertainties:

      The presence of the species in El Salvador.

      Crop rotation N

      Description:

      The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined to the export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.

      Disinfection of irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whitefly, shoreflies and other flying insects

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of Epitrix adults. Feeding damage by adults is easy to detect.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 9.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides are effective against Epitrix adults.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficacy of the applied insecticide and its timing is not known.

      Sampling and testing N

      Description:

      Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. plants are laboratory tested using serological based techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the lab each 6–8 weeks to test the virus.

      Packing and handling procedures N

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber.

      The shipment of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Official Supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of Epitrix adults.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection is not known.

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided.

      Evaluation:

      The surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of Epitrix adults. However no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of surveillance scheme.

      A.4.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.4.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are not a preferred host.
      • Epitrix spp has never been intercepted on produce from Guatemala.
      • Dispersal capacity of Epitrix adults is limited.
      • Low population pressure of Epitrix species in the surrounding environment, due to the limited presence of preferred host plants.
      • Greenhouse structure is insect-proof and entrance is thus unlikely.
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective, insects are expected to be easily detected.
      • Application of the insecticides have a good efficacy against Epitrix adults.
      • At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms will be detected.

      A.4.5.2 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      • E. cucumeris and E. subcrinita are present throughout Guatemala and they have a wide host range, mainly solanaceous plant, including Petunia (E. cucumeris) and it is likely that host plants are present in the surrounding environment.
      • Greenhouses are located in areas where E. cucumeris and E. subcrinita are present and abundant (e.g. potato, tomato).
      • Presence of E. cucumeris and E. subcrinita in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure.
      • Insecticide treatments are not targeting E. cucumeris and E. subcrinita.

      A.4.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      • The protective effect of the greenhouse structure.
      • The insecticides treatments are effective.
      • There are no records of interceptions from Guatemala.

      A.4.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile/interquartile range)

      • The main uncertainty is the population pressure of the two Epitrix species in the surrounding environment.
      • High uncertainty for values below median
      • Less uncertainty for higher values

      A.4.6 Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for Epitrix

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.7) and pest freedom (Table A.8).

      TABLE A.7. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation by E. subcrinita and E. cucumeris per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 0 1 2 3 5
      EKE 0.0733 0.153 0.267 0.472 0.725 1.03 1.33 1.95 2.65 3.04 3.50 3.96 4.41 4.73 5.01
      • Note: The EKE results is the BetaGeneral (1.2604, 2.0485, 0, 5.5) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.8.

      TABLE A.8. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of E. subcrinita and E. cucumeris per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.7.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9995 9997 9998 9999 10,000
      EKE results 9995 9995 9996 9996 9996 9997 9997 9998.0 9998.7 9999.0 9999.3 9999.5 9999.7 9999.8 9999.9
      • Note: The EKE results are the fitted values.
      image

      FIGURE A .4 (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for Epitrix complex (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (C) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags

      A.4.7 Reference list

      Bienkowski, A. O., & Orlova-Bienkowskaja, M. J. (2016). Key to Holarctic species of Epitrix flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) with review of their distribution, host plants and history of invasions. Zootaxa, 4175, 401–435. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4175.5.1

      Boavida, C., & Germain, J. F. (2009). Identification and pest status of two exotic flea beetle species newly introduced in Portugal: Epitrix similaris Gentner and Epitrix cucumeris (Harris). Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 39, 501–508. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2009.02339.x

      Boavida, C., Santos, M., & Naves, P. (2019). Biological traits of Epitrix papa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae), a new potato pest in Europe, and implications for pest management. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12344

      EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). (2019). Pest survey card on Epitrix cucumeris, Epitrix papa, Epitrix subcrinita and Epitrix tuberis. EFSA Supporting publication, EN-1571. https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2019.EN-1571

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) (online). Epitrix cucumeris (EPIXCU). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/EPIXCU

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2005). Datasheets on pests recommended for regulation. EPPO Bulletin, 35(3), 363–364. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2005.00850.x

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2010). Pest risk analysis for Epitrix species damaging potato tubers. Document 11–17790. Paris. https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRA_intro.htm

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2017). PM 7/109 (2) Epitrix cucumeris, Epitrix papa, Epitrix subcrinita, Epitrix tuberis. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 47(1), 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12362

      EUROPHYT (online). European Union Notification System for Plant Health Interceptions – EUROPHYT. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/plant_health_biosecurity/europhyt/index_en.htm

      Eyre, D., & Giltrap, N. (2013). Epitrix flea beetles: New threats to potato production in Europe. Pest Management Science, 69, 3–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3423

      Hoffman, M., Hoebeke, R., & Dillard, H. (1999). Flea Beetle Pests of Vegetables. Vegetable crops Fact sheet, NYS IPM, Cornell University. https://hdl.handle.net/1813/43272

      Jones, E. W. (1944). Biological studies of two potato flea beetles in eastern Washington. Journal of Economic Entomology, 37, 9–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/37.1.9

      PRA (Pest risk assessment). (2019). Pest risk assessment of selected Epitrix species. Scientific Opinion of the panel on plant health of the Norwegian scientific committee for food and environment. VKM Report, 17.

      Senanayake, D. G., & Holliday, N. J. (1989). Seasonal abundance of foliage-dwelling insect pests in commercial fields and insecticide-free plots of potato in Manitoba. The Canadian Entomologist, 121, 253–265. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent121253-3

      TRACES-NT (online). TRAde Control and Expert System. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/tracesnt

      A.5 Leafminers

      A.5.1 Organism information

      Name of the organisms in the cluster

      Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (LIRIHU)

      Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) (LIRISA)

      Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (LIRTR)

      Reasons for clustering:

      The three leafmining species have a very similar biology and are therefore evaluated as a group.

      Group

      Order: Diptera

      Family: Agromyzidae

      Regulated status Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 (Annex III) in specific protected zones.
      Host status on Petunia sp./Calibrachoa sp. Pest name Petunia/Calibrachoa host status Solanaceae host plants
      L. huidobrensis Petunia spp. Pepper, Tomato
      L. sativae Petunia spp. Potato, Tomato
      L. trifolii Petunia spp. Pepper, Tomato
      Uncertainties:
      Pest status in Guatemala L. huidobrensis, L. sativae and L. trifolii according to EPPO/CABI/Guatemala NPPO are present in Guatemala.
      Pest status in EU No relevant as EU quarantine.
      PRA information

      Available Pest Risk Assessments:

      Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options (EFSA, 2012).

      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology

      Host range and distribution of host plants in the environment:

      Liriomyza huidobrensis is a highly polyphagous species and develops in many different vegetable and flower crops inside as well as outside the greenhouse (Mujica et al., 2017; Weintraub and Horowitz, 1995). Major host plants of L. huidobrensis are Apium graveolens, Capsicum annuum, Chrysanthemum x morifolium, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Lactuca sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum and Verbena hybrids (EPPO, online a).

      Liriomyza sativae is a highly polyphagous species, with more than 60 host plants in 18 different botanical families (EFSA et al., 2020; Xu et al., 2022). Hosts include cultivated monocots (e.g. maize, sorghum) and dicots (e.g. potatoes, cabbages, sugar beet, melons), and ornamentals (e.g. dahlia, phlox), as well as weed species (EFSA, 2020). Major host plants of L. sativae are Cucurbita pepo, Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum (EPPO, online b).

      Liriomyza trifolii is a highly polyphagous species (Stegmaier, 1966). The host range of L. trifolii includes over 400 species of plants in 28 families including both ornamental crops and vegetables (CABI, online). The main host families and species include: Apiaceae (A. graveolens); Asteraceae (Aster spp., Chrysanthemum spp., Gerbera spp., Dahlia spp., Ixeris stolonifera, Lactuca sativa, Lactuca spp., Zinnia spp.); Brassicaceae (Brassica spp.); Caryophyllaceae (Gypsophila spp.); Chenopodiaceae (Spinacia oleracea, Beta vulgaris); Cucurbitaceae (Cucumis spp., Cucurbita spp.); Fabaceae (Glycine max, Medicago sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Pisum spp., Trifolium spp., Vicia faba); Liliaceae (A. cepa, Allium sativum) and Solanaceae (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Petunia spp., Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum spp.) (CABI, online; EFSA, 2012). Major host plants of L. trifolii are Apium graveolens and Chrysanthemum x morifolium (EPPO, online c).

      Characteristics of the pests:

      Size of adults; The wing length of the Liriomyza species is between 1.3–2.25 mm (EPPO PM7/53(2) Liriomyza).

      Population build-up/Season effects on crops.

      Dispersal capacities.

      Liriomyza species are polyphagous. On Solanaceae crops Liriomyza can reach high populations.

      Symptoms on Petunia/Calibrachoa:

      The presence of Liriomyza at the first state of infestation (eggs, oviposition punctures) are difficult to detect.

      Feeding punctures appear as white speckles between 0.13 and 0.15 mm in diameter. Oviposition punctures are smaller (0.05 mm) and are more uniformly round. Mines are usually white with dampened black and dried brown areas. They are typically serpentine, tightly coiled and of irregular shape, increasing in width as larvae mature (CABI, online).

      What life stages could be expected on the commodity Petunia is reported as a host plant. Eggs and feeding larvae may be present on leaves of harvested unrooted cuttings.
      Surveillance information There are no targeted surveys for Liriomyza in Guatemala.

      A.5.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.5.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      Leafminers are polyphagous pests that are reported to be present in Guatemala. Given the wide distribution range of host plants, it is possible that local populations of Leafminers are present in the neighbouring environment.

      Adults leafminer can naturally spread over short distances through flight or wind assisted dispersal (EFSA, 2012; Plant Health Australia, 2020). Human activity is believed to be a key factor in the rapid spread of both Liriomyza species particularly via host planting material and cut flowers, which are the main means of long-distance dispersal (EFSA, 2012).

      Uncertainties: There are no uncertainties.

      A.5.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Leafminers species could enter the nursery with infested propagation material of host plants species.

      Other solanaceous and non-solanaceous plants are produced in the same nursery and their cultivation rotates within the nursery greenhouses/compartments.

      Uncertainties: There are no uncertainties

      A.5.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      When present, flying adults searching for food sources can spread from infested host plants species within the nursery. Hitchhiking of leafminers flies (adults) on human clothes is unlikely.

      Uncertainties:

      The physical separation of the Petunia/Calibrachoa units from the other units present in the greenhouse.

      A.5.3 Information from interceptions

      In the EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT database there are no records of interceptions of Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae, Liriomyza trifolii on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. from third countries or on any other plant from Guatemala.

      A.5.4 Risk Mitigation Measure applied in the nurseries

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      Plants in the greenhouse are protected from dispersing of leafminers that may enter from the surrounding environment. Leafminers may be introduced through defects in the greenhouse or as hitchhikers on clothing of greenhouse staff. Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      • Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Same unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of leafminers.

      Uncertainties:

      Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment N

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Description:

      The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel and are reported to be certified (See Section 17).

      Evaluation:

      The imported material is certified, and for this reason is checked for visual symptoms and it is expected to be free from leafminers.

      Uncertainties: No details are given on the certification system.

      Crop rotation N

      Description:

      The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined to the export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.

      Disinfection of irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whiteflies, shoreflies and other flying insects

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of leafminers.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 3.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides are effective against the vector leafminers.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficacy of the applied insecticide and its timing is not known.

      Sampling and testing N

      Description:

      Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate.

      Evaluation:

      Packing and handling procedures Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber

      The shipment of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Evaluation:

      The collection of cuttings and their sorting will allow to identify and remove the possible infested cuttings.

      Official supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of leafminers.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection is not known.

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided.

      Evaluation:

      The surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of the pests. However no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of surveillance scheme.

      A.5.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.5.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii have been reported on Solanaceae and on Petunia spp.
      • Calibrachoa spp. is not a preferred host.
      • Visible symptoms on leaves will allow to easily detect the pests.
      • L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii have never been intercepted on produce from Guatemala.
      • Dispersal capacity of L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii are limited to the first instar stage (crawler).
      • Low population pressure of Liriomyza huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii in the surrounding environment, because of active natural enemies or absence of preferred host plants.
      • Transfer of L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii from sources in the surrounding environment to the greenhouse plants is very difficult because dispersal is mainly dependent on human-assisted movement of the first instar stage (crawler) and hygienic measures are in place to prevent this.
      • Greenhouse structure is insect-proof and entrance is thus unlikely.
      • Rotation of compartments, break of 1 month in the cultivation and dedicated compartments for Petunia/Calibrachoa will reduce the probability of infestation.
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective, insects are expected to be easily detected because of the production of honeydew.
      • Application of the insecticides Mainspring (a.i. Cyantraniliprole) and Movento (a.i. spirotetramat) have a good efficacy against the scale insect L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii.
      • At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms will be detected.
      • 25 cuttings per bag.

      A.5.5.2 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      • L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii are present throughout Guatemala and they have a wide host range, mainly Solanaceous plants, including Petunia spp. and it is likely that host plants are present in the surrounding environment.
      • Greenhouses are located in areas where L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii is present and abundant (e.g. pepper, tomato) and natural enemy activity is low.
      • Presence of leafminer species in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure or leafminer insects hitchhike on greenhouse staff.
      • Insecticide treatments are not targeting to leafminer insects.
      • Although there are no evidence that Petunia spp and Calibrachoa spp. are host plants for Leafminers given the polyphagous nature of this insects it is likely that Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are suitable host plants.
      • 80 cuttings per bag.

      A.5.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      • The protective effect of the greenhouse structure.
      • The insecticides treatments are not targeting leafminer insects but are moderately effective.
      • There are no records of interceptions from Guatemala.

      A.5.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile/interquartile range)

      • The main uncertainty is the population pressure of the leafminers species in the surrounding environment.
      • High uncertainty for values below median.
      • Less uncertainty for higher values.

      A.5.6 Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for Leafminers

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.9) and pest freedom (Table A.10).

      TABLE A.9. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 1 4 7 18 60
      EKE 0.996 1.08 1.25 1.68 2.39 3.45 4.73 8.11 13.2 16.9 22.2 29.0 38.4 47.7 60.1
      • Note: The EKE results is the BetaGeneral (0.77672, 66.82, 0.96, 1000) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.10.

      TABLE A.10. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of infestation Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.9.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9940 9982 9993 9996 9999
      EKE results 9940 9952 9962 9971 9978 9983 9987 9992 9995 9996.5 9997.6 9998.3 9998.8 9998.9 9999.0
      • Note: The EKE results are the fitted values.
      image

      FIGURE A .5 (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for Leafminers complex (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (C) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags

      A.5.7 Reference list

      CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). (Online). Datasheet Liriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer). https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/10.1079/cabicompendium.30965

      EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). (2012). Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. EFSA Journal, 10(12), 190. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.3028

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), Bragard, C., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Di Serio, F., Gonthier, P., Jacques, M. A., Jaques Miret, J. A., Justesen, A. F., Magnusson, C. S., Milonas, P., Navas-Cortes, J. A., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Reignault, P. L., Thulke, H.-H., Van der Werf, W., Vicent Civera, A., Yuen, J., Zappala, L., Czwienczek, E., Streissl, F., & MacLeod, A. (2020). Scientific Opinion on the pest categorization of Liriomyza sativae. EFSA Journal, 18(3), 6037, 37 pp. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2020.6037

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (Online_a). Liriomyza huidobrensis (LIRIHU). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/LIRIHU

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (Online_b). Liriomyza sativae (THAUPR). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/LIRISA

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (Online_c). Liriomyza trifolii (LIRITR). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/LIRITR

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2022). EPPO Standard on diagnostics PM 7/53(2) Liriomyza spp. EPPO Bulletin, 52, 326–345. https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12832

      EUROPHYT. (Online). European Union Notification System for Plant Health Interceptions - EUROPHYT. http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/plant_health_biosecurity/europhyt/index_en.htm

      Mujica, N., Sporleder, M., Carhuapoma, P., & Kroschel, J. (2017). A temperature-dependent phenology model for Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 110, 1333–1344. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox067

      Plant Health Australia Limited (Version 1, 2020). Contingency plan for serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis). https://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Liriomyza-huidobrensis-CP-2020-v1.02.pdf

      Stegmaier, C. E. (1966). Host plants and parasites of Liriomyza trifolii in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). The Florida Entomologist, 49(2), 75–80. https://doi.org/10.2307/3493532

      Weintraub, P. G., & Horowitz, A. R. (1995). The newest leafminer pest in Israel, Liriomyza huidobrensis. Phytoparasitica 23(2), 177–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02980977

      Xu, X., Schmidt, T. L., Liang, J., Ridland, P. M., Chung, J., Yang, Q., Jasper, M. E., Umina, P. A., Liu, W., Hoffmann, A. A. (2022). Genome-wide SNPs of vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae: Insights into the recent Australian invasion. Evolutionary Applications, 15(7), 1129–1140. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.13430

      A.6 Phenacoccus solenopsis

      A.6.1 Organism information

      Taxonomic information

      Current valid scientific name: Phenacoccus solenopsis

      Synonyms: Phenacoccus cevalliae, Phenacoccus gossypiphilous

      Name used in the EU legislation: –

      Order: Hemiptera

      Family: Pseudococcidae

      Common name: Cotton mealybug, solenopsis mealybug

      Name used in the dossier: Phenacoccus solenopsis

      Group Insects
      EPPO code PHENSO
      Regulated status

      Phenacoccus solenopsis is not regulated in the EU, neither listed by EPPO.

      The insect is included in the list of pests that are regulated by the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/490 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as regards certain plants for planting of Juglans regia L., Nerium oleander L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. originating in Turkey, and amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/1213 as regards the phytosanitary measures for the introduction of those plants for planting into the Union territory.

      The insect is included in the list of pests that are regulated by the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1936 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 as regards certain plants for planting of Ficus carica L. and Persea americana Mill. originating in Israel, amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/1213 as regards the phytosanitary measures for the introduction of those plants for planting into the Union territory and correcting the latter Implementing Regulation.

      Pest status in Guatemala It is reported as present with no further details (CABI, EPPO, García Morales et al., 2016).
      Pest status in the EU

      Present, restricted distribution (CABI, EPPO)

      The pest is present in Cyprus (EPPO GD, online), in Greece only in island of Crete (EFSA PHL Panel 2021a), in Italy in Lazio region and Sicily (Sannino et al., 2019; Ricupero et al., 2021) and in France in the province of Brittany (Kreiter et al., 2020)

      In Cyprus, the pest first reported in 2010 on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana and Chrysanthemum plants, mainly in private gardens. It was also occasionally found on gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus) and Vitis spp. Measures will be taken to contain the pest (EPPO GD, online)

      In Italy, it was first found in 2019 in Lazio (Latina province) in a glasshouse on ornamentals (hibiscus, dipladenias and poinsettias), as well as outdoors on weeds (Portulaca sp. and Solanum nigrum). In 2019, a small infestation was also found in Sicilia near Ragusa on glasshouse with chrysanthemums plants and 2020 recorded as damaging in tomato production in Sicilia (Sannino et al., 2019; Ricupero et al., 2021)

      In Greece, it was found in summer 2020 on Crete Island on tomato plants (FSA PHL Panel, 2021)

      In France, it was found in the French province of Brittany (Kreiter et al., 2020)

      Host status on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp.

      Petunia sp. and P. integrifolia are reported as host plants for P. solenopsis (Fallahzadeh et al., 2014; Malumphy et al., 2013)

      There is no information on whether P. solenopsis can also attack Calibrachoa species.

      PRA information

      – Rapid pest risk analysis for Phenacoccus solenopsis (Cotton mealybug) and the closely related P. defectus and P. solani (Malumphy et al., 2013).

      – Pest risk analysis (PRA) of Mealybug Spp. in Bangladesh (Islam et al., 2017).

      – Scientific Opinion on the commodity risk assessment of Ficus carica plants from Israel (EFSA PLH Panel, 2021a).

      – Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Phenacoccus solenopsis (EFSA PLH Panel, 2021b).

      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology

      Phenacoccus solenopsis originates from southern California and Nevada (Spodek et al., 2018).

      Female of P. solenopsis develops through an egg, three nymphal instars to an adult. The male has additional nymphal stage, the last two are called prepupa and pupa. Reproduction is sexual and ovoviviparous. Facultative parthenogenesis was observed under laboratory conditions of mealybugs collected from Nagpur, India (Vennila et al., 2010). Males have wings and females are wingless. Adult females are pale yellow to orange covered by powdery, wax secretion (Hodgson et al., 2008).

      Females lay ~150–600 eggs in a white, waxy ovisac (Fand and Suroshe, 2015). The life cycle of P. solenopsis ranges between 28 and 35 days and can complete about 8–12 generations in a year (Fand and Suroshe, 2015).

      The first nymphs are crawlers, which disperse to other parts of the same plant or get carried by the wind or other means (machinery, workers, animals) to other areas (Hodgson et al., 2008). The adult males live from few hours up to 3 days, depending on the temperature (Hodgson et al., 2008). Adult females can live for up to 3 months (Gerson and Aplebaum, online).

      In Israel, the pest was observed on roots and root collars of weeds. In winter, P. solenopsis populations were found on the stems, branches and root collar of hibiscus plants (Spodek et al., 2018). It overwinters as an adult female, on the bark, the stem and branches of woody plants. It seems that it may develop in the ground on roots of non-woody plants (Spodek et al., 2018). This mealybug has been reported to be capable of surviving temperatures ranging from 0 to 45°C, throughout the year (CABI, online). The crawlers of P. solenopsis have been reported be commonly dispersed by wind for distances ranging from a few meters to several kilometres (Islam et al., 2017).

      Symptoms Main type of symptoms Phenacoccus solenopsis prefers the upper parts of the plants, young shoots or branches carrying fruitlets (Spodek et al., 2018). Large populations of mealybugs cause general weakening, distortion, defoliation, dieback and death of susceptible plants (Malumphy et al., 2013). Plants become covered in sooty moulds that grow on the honeydew produced by mealybugs. The honeydew also attracts ants that protect the mealybugs from natural enemies (Hodgson et al., 2008). The infested plants of cotton become stunted, growth appears to stop and most plants look dehydrated. In severe outbreaks, the cotton bolls fail to open and defoliation occurs (including the loss of flower buds, flowers and immature bolls) (Hodgson et al., 2008). On tomatoes the pest causes foliar yellowing, leaf wrinkling, puckering and severe damage, resulting in death (Ibrahim et al., 2015).
      Presence of asymptomatic plants No asymptomatic period is known to occur in the infested plants. Plant damage might not be obvious in early infestation or during dormancy (due to absence of leaves), but the presence of mealybugs on the plants could be observed. During the crawler stage, infestation is difficult to be noted (Ben-Dov, 1994).
      Confusion with other pathogens/pests Although it may be confused with other species of Phenacoccus, a slide mounted female can be distinguished using taxonomic keys (Hodgson et al., 2008).
      Host plant range Phenacoccus solenopsis is highly invasive and polyphagous, feeding on approximately 300 plant species in 65 botanical families. The plant families containing most hosts are Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Solanaceae. (Arif et al., 2009; Fallahzadeh et al., 2014; Fand and Suroshe, 2015; Garcsıa Morales et al., online; Vennila et al., 2013).
      What life stages could be expected on the commodity Possible pathways of entry for mealybugs are plant materials of any kind (hiding in a protected site – on the bark, roots, stems, leaves), human transportation, irrigation water, wind, animals and ants (Mani and Shivaraju, 2016).
      Surveillance information Dossier

      A.6.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.6.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      P. solenopsis is polyphagous species that is reported to be present in Guatemala. Given the wide host range of this pest it is possible that local populations of P. solenopsis are present in the neighbouring environment.

      Possible pathways of entry into the nursery can be by movement of infested plants, wind, human and animal dispersal and irrigation water (Mani and Shivaraju, 2016). The first nymph instars (crawlers) can disperse by walking and by wind and by hitchhiking (Mani and Shivaraju, 2016).

      Uncertainties:
      • It is not known what the P. solenopsis population pressure is in the surrounding environment of the nursery.
      • Presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.
      • The presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.

      A.6.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Mother plants used for the production of unrooted cuttings originate from the Netherlands, Germany, El Salvador and Israel. There is a possibility that P. solenopsis could enter the nursery with infested propagation material of host plants species.

      Uncertainties:
      • The origin of the propagation material in relation to the infested areas;
      • The presence and the numbers of other host plants in the export nursery.

      A.6.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      Nymphs and adults could spread from other host plants present in the nursery by hitchhiking on clothing of nursery staff.

      Uncertainties:
      • There are no uncertainties.

      A.6.3 Information from interceptions

      In the EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT database there are no records of interceptions of P. solenopsis on Petunia sp. and on Calibrachoa sp. from third countries or on any other plant from Guatemala.

      A.6.4 Risk Mitigation Measure applied in the nurseries

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      Plants in the greenhouse are protected from dispersing Phenacoccus solenopsis adults that may enter from the surrounding environment. Phenacoccus solenopsis adults may be introduced through defects in the greenhouse. Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      • Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Same unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia and Calibrachoa are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of mealybug.

      Uncertainties:

      Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment Ν

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Description:

      The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel and are reported to be certified (See Section 17).

      Evaluation:

      Phenacoccus solenopsis is present in El Salvador and adults could be associated with mother plants.

      Uncertainties:

      The abundance of the species in El Salvador.

      Crop rotation N

      Description:

      The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined to the export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.

      Disinfection of irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whitefly, shoreflies and other flying insects.

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of Phenacoccus solenopsis adults.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 9.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides are effective against Phenacoccus solenopsis adults.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficacy of the applied insecticide and its timing is not known.

      Sampling and testing N

      Description:

      Petunia and Calibrachoa plants are laboratory tested using serological based techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the lab each 6–8 weeks to test the virus.

      Packing and handling procedures N

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber.

      The shipment of Petunia and Calibrachoa cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Official supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of Phenacoccus solenopsis.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection is not known.

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided.

      Evaluation:

      The surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of Phenacoccus solenopsis. However no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of surveillance scheme.

      A.6.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.6.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • Calibrachoa spp. is not a preferred host.
      • Mealybug spp. has never been intercepted on produce from Guatemala.
      • Dispersal capacity of Mealybug adults is limited.
      • Low population pressure of Mealybug species in the surrounding environment, due to the limited presence of preferred host plants.
      • Greenhouse structure is insect-proof and entrance is thus unlikely.
      • Rotation of compartments (Solanaceae, other), break of 1 month, dedicated compartments for petunia/calibrachoa
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective, insects are expected to be easily detected.
      • Application of the insecticides have a good efficacy against Mealybug adults.
      • Sorting may reduce the infestation.
      • At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms will be detected.
      • 25 cuttings per bag.

      A.6.5.2 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      • P. solenopsis is present throughout Guatemala and has a wide host range, mainly solanaceous plant, including Petunia and it is likely that host plants are present in the surrounding environment.
      • Greenhouses are located in areas where P. solenopsis is present and abundant (e.g. potato, tomato).
      • Presence of P. solenopsis in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure.
      • Insecticide treatments are not targeting P. solenopsis.
      • Hitch hiking is possible.
      • 80 cuttings per bag.

      A.6.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      • High uncertainty in the lower part.
      • Low possibility of introduction from outside.
      • Early stages difficult to detect.

      A.6.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile/interquartile range)

      • The main uncertainty is the population pressure of P. solenopsis in the surrounding environment.
      • High uncertainty for values below median.
      • Less uncertainty for higher values.

      A.6.6 Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for Mealybug

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.11) and pest freedom (Table A.12).

      TABLE A.11. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation by Phenacoccus solenopsis per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 1 5 10 20 80
      EKE 0.942 1.37 1.88 2.72 3.75 5.04 6.44 9.99 15.5 19.8 26.6 36.7 53.0 73.0 105.9
      • Note: The EKE results is the Lognorm (16.72, 22.448) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.12.

      TABLE A.12. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of Phenacoccus solenopsis per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.11.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9920 9980 9990 9995 9999
      EKE results 9894 9927 9947 9963 9973 9980 9985 9990 9994 9995 9996 9997 9998.1 9998.6 9999.1
      • Note: The EKE results are the fitted values.
      image

      FIGURE A .6 (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for Phenacoccus solenopsis complex (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (C) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags.

      A.6.7 Reference list

      Arif, M. I., Rafiq, M., & Ghaffar, A. (2009). Host plants of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis): A new menace to cotton agroecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11, 163–167.

      Ben-Dov, Y. (1994). A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. 100th Intercept Limited Andover, UK. 686 pp.

      CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). (online). Datasheet Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug). https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/109097

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), Bragard, C., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Di Serio, F., Jacques, M.-A., Jaques Miret, J. A., Justesen, A. F., MacLeod, A., Magnusson, C. S., Milonas, P., Navas-Cortes, J. A., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Reignault, P. L., Thulke, H.-H., van der Werf, W., Civera, A. V., … Gonthier, P. (2021a). Scientific Opinion on the commodity risk assessment of Ficus carica plants from Israel. EFSA Journal, 19(1), 6353. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6353

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), Bragard, C., Di Serio, F., Gonthier, P., Jaques Miret, J. A., Justesen, A. F., Magnusson, C. S., Milonas, P., Navas-Cortes, J. A., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Reignault, P. L., Thulke, H.-H., Van der Werf, W., Civera, A. V., Yuen, J., Zappal_a, L., Gregoire, J.-C., … MacLeod, A. (2021b). Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Phenacoccus solenopsis. EFSA Journal, 19(8), 6801. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6801

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (online). Phenacoccus solenopsis (PHENSO). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PHENSO

      EUROPHYT (online). European Union Notification System for Plant Health Interceptions – EUROPHYT. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/plant_health_biosecurity/europhyt/index_en.htm

      Fallahzadeh, M., Abdimaleki, R., & Saghaei, N. (2014). Host Plants of the Newly Invasive Mealybug Species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran. Zeitschrift fur Entomologie Entomofauna, 35, 169–176.

      Fand, B., & Suroshe, S. (2015). The invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, a threat to tropical and subtropical agricultural and horticultural production systems - a review. Crop Protection, 69, 34–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.12.001

      Garc_ıa Morales, M., Denno, B. D., Miller, D. R., Miller, G. L., Ben-Dov, Y., & Hardy, N. B. (online). ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics, Phenacoccus solenopsis. https://scalenet.info/catalogue/Phenacoccus%20solenopsis/

      Gerson, U., & Aplebaum, S. (online). Plant Pests of the Middle East, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. https://www.agri.huji.ac.il/mepests/pest/Phenacoccus_solenopsis/

      Hodgson, C., Abbas, G., Arif, M. J., Saeed, S., & Karar, H. (2008). Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha:Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), an invasive mealybug damaging cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. Zootaxa, 1913, 1–35. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1913.1.1

      Ibrahim, S. S., Moharum, F. A., El-Ghany, N. M. A. (2015). The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 55, 48–51. https://doi.org/10.1515/jppr-2015-0007

      Islam, K. S., Ali, R., Hossain, A., Aminuzzaman, F. M., Ullah, J., Alam, F., Saha, S., & Abdullah-Al-Mahamud, K. M. (2017). Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) of Mealybug Spp. in Bangladesh. Strengthening Phytosanitary Capacity in Bangladesh Project.

      Malumphy, C., Baker, R., & Anderson, H. (2013). Rapid pest risk analysis for Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) and the closely related P. defectus and P. solani. FERA (The Food and Environment Research Agency), UK. https://pra.eppo.int/pra/39656db7-d832-415c-83b7-49ff596393e8

      Mani, M., & Shivaraju, C. (2016). Mealybugs and their management in agricultural and horticultural crops. Berlin, Germany, Springer. 655 pp.

      Plant Quarantine Wing Department of Agricultural Extension Khamarbari, Farmgate, Dhaka-1205. 128 pp.

      Sannino, L., Espinosa, B., Piccirillo, G., Pallino, R., & Fondacaro, S. (2019). Phenacoccus solenopsis nuova minaccia sulle solanacee. L'informatore Agrario no. 47, 51–55.

      Ricupero, M., Biondi, A., Russo, A., Zappalà, L., & Mazzeo, G. (2021). The cotton mealybug is spreading along the Mediterranean: first pest detection in Italian tomatoes. Insects, 12(8), 675. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080675

      Spodek, M., Ben-Dov, Y., Mondaca, L., Protasov, A., Erel, E., & Mendel, Z. (2018). The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Israel: pest status, host plants and natural enemies. Phytoparasitica, 46, 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-018-0642-1

      TRACES-NT (online). TRAde Control and Expert System. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/tracesnt

      Vennila, S., Deshmukh, A. J., Pinjarkar, D., Agarwal, M., Ramamurthy, V. V., Joshi, S., Kranthi, K. R., & Bambawale, O. M. (2010). Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis on cotton in the laboratory. Journal of Insect Science, 10, 115.

      Vennila, S., Prasad, Y. G., Prabhakar, M., Agarwal, M., Sreedevi, G., & Bambawale, O. M. (2013). Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Environmental Biology, 34.

      A.7 Moths

      A.7.1 Organism information

      Name of the organisms in the cluster

      Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (HELIZE)

      Chloridea virescens (Fabricius) (HELIVI)

      Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée) (PRODOR)

      Reasons for clustering:

      The three moth species have a very similar biology and are therefore evaluated as a group.

      Group

      Order: Lepidoptera

      Family: Noctuidae

      Regulated status

      Helicoverpa zea: Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072, Annex II, Part A.

      Chloridea virescens, Spodoptera ornithogalli: Emergency measures.

      Host status on Petunia sp./Calibrachoa sp. Pest name Petunia/Calibrachoa host status Solanaceae host plants
      H. zea No evidence Eggplant, Pepper, Potato, Tobacco, Tomato
      C. virescens Petunia spp., Calibrachoa spp Tobacco, Tomato
      S. ornithogalli Petunia spp. Eggplant, Potato, Tobacco, Tomato

      For H. zea there are no records for Petunia/Calibrachoa. However, H. zea is highly polyphagous (see biology section) and among the host plats there are several solanaceous host plants. Therefore, the panel assumes that Petunia/Calibrachoa are likely as a host plant species.

      Uncertainties: the host status of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. to Helicoverpa zea.

      Pest status in Guatemala
      H. zea, C. virescens and S. ornithogalli according to EPPO GD online are present in Guatemala.
      Pest status in EU No relevant as EU quarantine or emergency risk pests.
      PRA information

      Available Pest Risk Assessments:

      Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Helicoverpa zea (EFSA PLH Panel, 2020).

      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology

      Host range and distribution of host plants in the environment:

      Helicoverpa zea is a highly polyphagous pest. Most hosts are recorded from the family Poaceae, Malvaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae; in total more than 100 plant species are recorded as hosts. The crops most frequently recorded as host plants are maize, sorghum, cotton, beans, peas, chickpeas, tomatoes, aubergines, peppers and, to a lesser extent, clover, okra, cabbages, lettuces, strawberries, tobacco, sunflowers, cucurbits and many of the other legumes. Damage to fruits and to trees has also been recorded (EFSA, 2020; EPPO, online a).

      Chloridea virescens is a highly polyphagous pest infesting more than 19 crops and has been reported to feed on at least 80 wild plants species (Blanco et al., 2007). Glycine max (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum (American upland cotton), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Nicotiana tabacum (large tobacco) are major hosts (EPPO, online b; Karpinski et al., 2014) for C. virescens. In general, preferred hosts are Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), Capsicum annuum (bell pepper), Cicer arietinum (chickpea), Cucurbita pepo (marrow), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Linum usitatissimum (flax), Phaseolus (beans), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Zea mays (maize) (EPPO, online).

      Spodoptera ornithogalli is a highly polyphagous insect pest damaging a wide range of cultivated and wild plants. The larvae of S. ornithogalli can feed on at least 209 plant species belonging to 76 botanical families (Brito et al., 2019). Plant species of the Asteraceae presented the highest number of records (approximately 23% of the total records) followed by plants species belonging to Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Araceae families, with 19, 15 and 14% of the total records respectively (Brito et al., 2019). Spodoptera ornithogalli can damage many economically important horticultural crops such as alfalfa, banana, barley, begonia calathea, cabbage, carrot, cassava, Chinese banyan, corn, cotton, eggplant, flax, gladiolus, jasmine, lentil, lettuce, marigold, oat, okra, onion, orange, papaya, peach, peanut, Peperomia, pepper, potato, rose, soybean, spinach, strawberry, sunflower, vine grape, violet, watermelon and wheat. Weed species known to be suitable hosts include Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Datura sp., Erigeron canadensis, Grindelia sp., Ipomoea sp., Lactuca scariola, Plantago lanceolata, Ricinus communis; Rumex sp. and Solanum carolinense. In many cases, yellow striped armyworm develops first on weed or rangeland plants, with subsequent generations affecting crops (Brito et al., 2019; Capinera, 2008; EPPO, online c, 2021).

      Life cycle:

      The life span of moths ranges from 5 to 15 days on average. They are nocturnal and hide in vegetation during the day. Adult moths collect nectar or other plant exudates from a large number of plants and live for 12 to 16 days. Females can lay up to 2500 eggs in their lifetime.

      Symptoms and characteristic of the pest:

      Helicoverpa Zea

      Vegetative stage maize plants can have holes in the leaves following whorl-feeding on the apical leaf, although this type of feeding is generally rare. On maize plants at the reproductive stage, eggs can be found stuck to the silks. Young larvae of Helicoverpa zea feed on the silks as they move down the silk channel to feed on the ear. As the ears develop, kernels in the top few centimetres of the cobs can be eaten in addition to the unpollinated tip of the ear; usually only one large larva per cob can be seen. Larvae feed on contents of seeds of sorghum heads after chewing holes. While feeding on leaves of legume plants can occur, more significant damage is caused by feeding on seeds in pods. Feeding holes can be seen in tomato fruits, cotton bolls, cabbage and lettuce hearts and flower heads (EPPO, 2023).

      Chloridea virescens

      The larvae of Chloridea virescens make holes in shoots and flower buds, although sometimes they can be found on the growing tips, the leaf petioles and the stems. In the absence of reproductive tissue, the larvae easily feed on leaf material. When the caterpillars move towards and penetrate the fruit, the risk of disease infection increases considerably (Capinera, 2018; EPPO, 2015).

      Spodoptera ornithogalli

      The larvae of S. ornithogalli feeding on the aerial parts of the host plants. Larvae damage plants mainly by consumption of foliage. The small gregarious larvae tend to skeletonize foliage and the later larval instars consume irregular patches of foliage or entire leaves. The larvae can also feed on the fruits and flowers of host plants such as tomato, pepper and cotton (Bessin ND; Capinera, 2008; EPPO, 2015; Fernández et al., 2004).

      What life stages could be expected on the commodity Eggs and larvae could be present on Petunia/Calibrachoa plants on harvested unrooted cuttings.
      Surveillance information There is no information on specific surveys for S. ornithogalli, C. virescens and H. zea.

      A.7.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.7.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      The three moth species could be present on host plant crops cultivated in the area where the export nurseries are located. Moths are good flyers and it is possible that mated females are present near a greenhouse. Given the size of the adult moths (wingspan 3–5 cm) only the presence of large defects in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable a moth to enter. Hitchhiking moth on persons or material entering the greenhouse is unlikely.

      Uncertainties:

      The presence of suitable hostplants/crops in the surrounding environment of the export nurseries.

      A.7.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Eggs and larvae can be attached to plants or plant parts that are introduced in the greenhouse but they will be relatively easily detectable. It is unlikely that eggs or larvae are present on imported certified propagation material.

      A.7.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      Other host plants than Petunia/Calibrachoa could be present in the nursery and if infested with one of the moth species these production lots could be a source of spreading moths within the nursery.

      Uncertainties:

      The probability that the moth species are able to complete development to an adult moth inside the greenhouse.

      The probability that flying adults or larvae searching for food sources could spread from infested host plants within the nursery without being noticed.

      A.7.3 Information from interceptions

      In the EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT database there are 3 records of interceptions of H. zea on Pisum Sativum. from Guatemala. There are no records of interceptions of C. Virescens, S. ornithogalli on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. from third countries or on any other plant from Guatemala.

      A.7.4 Risk Mitigation Measure applied in the nurseries

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      The three moth species have a wingspan of 3–5 cm and cannot enter a greenhouse with thrips proof netting in place. Hitchhiking on clothing of greenhouse staff is unlikely

      Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      • Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Same unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia and Calibrachoa are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of moths.

      Uncertainties:

      It Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment N

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Description:

      The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel and are reported to be certified (See Section 17).

      Evaluation:

      It is unlikely that eggs or larvae are present on certified in vitro material or cuttings of Petunia/Calibrachoa.

      Uncertainties:

      The abundance of the species in and the proportion of plant material coming from El Salvador.

      Crop rotation N

      Description:

      The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined to the export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.

      Disinfection of irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whiteflies, shoreflies and other flying insects.

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      If one of the moth species would be present in the greenhouse, they should be monitored with pheromone traps. Moths can be caught by yellow sticky traps. Eggs and feeding damage are easy to detect. Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 3.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides can be effective against Lepidoptera.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficacy of the applied insecticide and its timing is not known.

      Sampling and testing N

      Description:

      Petunia and Calibrachoa plants are laboratory tested using serological based techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the lab each 6–8 weeks to test the virus. There is an inventory of immune-strips to test different virus from AGDIA.

      Packing and handling procedures Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber.

      The shipment of Petunia and Calibrachoa cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Evaluation:

      During this step feeding damages can be easily detected.

      Uncertainties:

      Eggs can go undetected.

      Official supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      Evaluation:

      All three moth species have a quarantine status in the EU and plants exported to the EU should be free of these pests.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection is not known.

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided.

      Evaluation:

      The surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of the insects. However no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of surveillance scheme.

      A.7.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.7.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • Petunia and Calibrachoa spp are not a preferred host for H. zea.
      • None of the three species has been intercepted on produce from Guatemala.
      • Low population pressure of the three species in the surrounding environment, due to the limited presence of preferred host plants.
      • Greenhouse structure is insect-proof and entrance is thus unlikely.
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective, insects are expected to be easily detected.
      • Application of the insecticides have a good efficacy against the three species.

      A.7.5.2 At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms will be detected Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      • H. zea, C. virescens and S. ornithogalli are present throughout Guatemala and they have a wide host range, mainly Solanaceous plant, including Petunia spp. (C. virescens, S. ornithogalli) and Calibrachoa spp. (C. virescens).
      • Greenhouses are located in areas where H. zea, C. virescens and S. ornithogalli are present and abundant (e.g. Eggplant, Pepper, Potato, Tobacco, Tomato).
      • Presence of H. zea, C. virescens and S. ornithogalli in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure.
      • Insecticide treatments are not targeting H. zea, C. virescens and S. ornithogalli.

      A.7.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      • The protective effect of the greenhouse structure.
      • The insecticides treatments are moderately effective.
      • There are no records of interceptions from Guatemala.

      A.7.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile/interquartile range)

      • The main uncertainty is the population pressure of the selected moths species in the surrounding environment.
      • High uncertainty for values below median.
      • Less uncertainty for higher values.

      A.7.6 Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for Moths

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.13) and pest freedom (Table A.14).

      TABLE A.13. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation by Helicoverpa zea, Chloridea virescens and Spodoptera ornithogalli per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 0 2 3 5 10
      EKE 0.303 0.492 0.718 1.06 1.45 1.88 2.30 3.18 4.21 4.86 5.69 6.64 7.79 8.82 10.0
      • Note: The EKE results is the BetaGeneral (2.0038, 9.7777, 0, 21) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.14.

      TABLE A.14. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of Helicoverpa zea, Chloridea virescens and Spodoptera ornithogalli per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.13.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9990 9995 9997 9998 10,000
      EKE results 9990 9991 9992 9993 9994 9995.1 9995.8 9996.8 9997.7 9998.1 9998.6 9998.9 9999.3 9999.5 9999.7
      • Note: The EKE results are the fitted values.
      image

      FIGURE A .7 (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for moths complex (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (C) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags.

      A.7.7 Reference list

      Bessin, R. N. D. Yellowstriped Armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée). ENTFACT-321. Cooperative extension service, University of Kentucky. https://www2.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/entfactpdf/ef321.pdf

      Blanco, C. A., Terán-Vargas, A. P., López Jr, J. D., Kauffman, J. V., & Wei, X. (2007). Densities of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in three plant hosts. Florida Entomologist, 742–750. https://doi.org/10.1653/0015-4040(2007)90[742:DOHVAH]2.0.CO;2

      Brito, R., Specht, A., Gonçalves, G. L., Moreira, G. R. P., Carneiro, E., Santos, F. L., Roque-Specht, V. F., Mielke, O. H. H., & Casagrande, M. M. (2019). Spodoptera marima: a New Synonym of Spodoptera ornithogalli (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Notes on Adult Morphology, Host Plant Use and Genetic Variation Along Its Geographic Range. Neotropical Entomology, 48, 433–448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-018-0654-z

      CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). (online). Datasheet Helicoverpa zea (bollworm). https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/10.1079/cabicompendium.26776

      CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). (online). Datasheet Heliothis virescens (tobacco budworm). https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/10.1079/cabicompendium.26774

      Capinera, J. L. (2001). Heliothis virescens: Featured Creatures (ed. by JL Gillett-Kaufman) Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. https://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/field/tobacco_budworm.htm

      Capinera, J. L. (2008). Yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenee) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). IFAS Extension, University of Florida, EENY 216. https://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/leaf/yellowstriped_armyworm.htm

      EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), Bragard, C., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Di Serio, F., Gonthier, P., Jacques, M.-A., Jaques Miret, J. A., Justesen, A. F., Magnusson, C. S., Milonas, P., Navas-Cortes, J. A., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Reignault, P. L., Thulke, H.-H., Van der Werf, W., Civera, A. V., Yuen, J., Zappalà, L., Czwienczek, E., … MacLeod, A. (2020). Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Helicoverpa zea. EFSA Journal, 18(7), 6177.

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2015). EPPO Technical Document No. 1068, EPPO study on pest risks associated with the import of tomato fruit. EPPO Paris. https://pra.eppo.int/pra/66c82994-76ab-4780-9fd0-ea4f92e7c094

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). online a. Helicoverpa zea. EPPO datasheets on pests recommended for regulation. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/HELIZE/datasheet

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). online b. Chloridea virescens (HELIVI). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/HELIVI

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2015). EPPO Technical Document No. 1068, EPPO Study on Pest Risks Associated with the Import of Tomato Fruit. EPPO Paris. /media/uploaded_images/RESOURCES/eppo_publications/td_1068_tomato_study.pdf

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2021). EPPO Alert List – Spodoptera ornithogalli (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Yellow-striped armyworm. https://www.eppo.int/ACTIVITIES/plant_quarantine/alert_list_insects/spodoptera_ornithogalli

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). online c. Spodoptera ornithogalli (PRODOR). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PRODOR

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). 2015b. Diagnostic Protocol PM 7/124 (1) Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania. EPPO Bulletin, 45(3), 410–444. https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12258

      EUROPHYT. (online). European Union Notification System for Plant Health Interceptions – EUROPHYT. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/plant_health_biosecurity/europhyt/index_en.htm

      Fernández, L. S., Fernández, C., & Mejía, J. E. (2004). Ciclo de vida de Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée) en el cultivo del algodonero en el Valle Medio del Sinú. Temas agrarios, 9(1), 30–36.

      Karpinski, A., Haenniger, S., Schofl, G., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2014). Host plant specialization in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the role of egg imprinting. Evolutionary Ecology, 28, 1075–1093. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-014-9723-x

      TRACES-NT. (online). TRAde Control and Expert System. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/tracesnt

      University of California Integrated Pest Management. (2007). UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. https://ipm.ucanr.edu/PHENOLOGY/ma-tobacco_budworm.html

      A.8 Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

      A.8.1 Organism information

      Name of the organisms in the cluster Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV00), Orthotospovirus tomatomaculae (proposed binomial nomenclature by ICTV).
      Group

      Viruses and viroids

      Tospoviridae

      Orthotospovirus

      Regulated status

      Tomato spotted wilt virus is regulated as RNQPs in vegetable propagating and planting material of Capsicum annuum L., Lactuca sativa L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanum melongena L. in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072, ANNEX IV, Part I.

      TSWV is a regulated non-quarantine pest (RNQP) of Begonia x hiemalis Fotsch, Capsicum annuum L., Chrysanthemum L., Gerbera L., Impatiens L. New Guinea Hybrids, Pelargonium L. plants for planting for ornamental purposes in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072, ANNEX IV, Part D

      Host status on Petunia sp./Calibrachoa sp.

      TSWV infects petunia, tomato, pepper and potato in nature (EPPO Bulletin 2020).

      There are no records that Calibrachoa sp. is a host of TSWV. However, TSWV has a very large host range within the solanaceous family (Parrela et al., 2003; EPPO). Therefore, Calibrachoa sp. is expected to be host of TSWV.

      Uncertainties:

      The host status of Calibrachoa sp. to TSWV.

      The ability of TSWV to systemically infect Petunia sp. and Calibrachoa sp.

      Pest status in Guatemala In Dossier section 5.0, the NPPO of Guatemala states that based of surveillance data there have been reports for the presence of TSWV in Guatemala, therefore TSWV is present in Guatemala.
      Pest status in EU No relevant as EU regulated pest.
      PRA information

      Available Pest Risk Assessments:

      - Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Tomato spotted wilt virus to the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2012).

      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology

      Transmission:

      Tospoviruses are transmitted by thrips species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in a circulative, propagative manner by which the virus persists through the various developmental stages of the insect. Frankliniella occidentalis is the most efficient vector of tospoviruses for their spread in ornamental and vegetable crops. Other species may also transmit INSV (F. fusca, F. intonsa F. bispinosa, F. cephalica, F. schultzei F. gemina, Thrips setosus and T. tabaci); however, the transmission efficiencies vary significantly among different species and sometimes among different populations of the same species (Oliver and Whitfield, 2016; Rotemberg et al., 2015).

      Transmission parameters of TSWV have been studied in details in the vector F. occidentalis a. Only thrips that acquire the virus as larvae (L1 and L2) are able to transmit TSWV. The first instar larval (L1) is the most efficient at acquiring the virus which it can be then transmitted by second instar larvae (L2) and adults after a latent period that is negatively correlated with temperature. The minimum acquisition access period and inoculation access period ranges from 5 min to 1 day with increasing frequency of transmission when the feeding period is extended. Following acquisition, TSWV is retained for the entire lifespan of the thrips, but it is not transovarially passed onto the insect progeny. TSWV is better spread by flying adults thrips than crawling larvae (Wijkamp and Peters, 1993; Wijkamp et al., 1993, 1995, 1996; Ullman et al., 1993).

      As all plant viruses that may systemically infect their host, TSWV could be also transmitted via the vegetative propagation material and it is generally considered not to be seed-transmitted (EFSA, 2012).

      Uncertainly on biology

      The vector ability of additional thrips species for tospoviruses.

      Host range and distribution of host plants in the environment:

      TSWV is one of the most successful plant pathogens in terms of worldwide distribution and an ever-expanding host range (Rybicki, 2015; Scholthof et al., 2011). Its host range includes 1300 species dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous angiosperms belonging to at least 85 families but mainly infecting species in the Asteraceae and Solanaceae families (Parella et al., 2013). The natural crop-hosts of TSWV include most of the major horticultural crops such as tomato, pepper, tobacco, legumes and many ornamentals (Parella et al., 2013). TSWV also infect many weed species which may contribute significantly to its epidemiology as virus reservoirs (Chatzivassiliou et al., 2001).

      Uncertainly on host range

      The actual host range of TSWV is continuously growing therefore remains unknown.

      Ecology and biology of the vectors:

      F. occidentalis is present in Guatemala (EPPO GD) where it widespread in field-grown crops and weeds (CABI online; Porres, 2008).

      F. occidentalis is a highly polyphagous invasive species and the most efficient vector of TSWV, and can reach high populations on ornamentals and vegetables belonging to the Solanaceae family especially during warm weather conditions. The entire life cycle from oviposition to adult emergence can take 8 days in hot weather to 44 days in cool weather (Rob et al., 1988).

      Uncertainly on ecology and biology of the vectors:

      The presence and distribution of other vector species.

      Symptoms on Petunia/Calibrachoa:

      TSWV infected petunia plants exhibit necrotic spots on the inoculated leaves with no systemic infection (Daughtrey et al., 1997; DPVnet). Symptoms usually appear within a few days after feeding of a viruliferous thrips. These spots are not easy to be detected by an inspector, especially in high densities of the plant canopy.

      In addition, these symptoms might be confused in between the different tospoviruses but also with those caused by some fungal or bacterial diseases. Therefore, further testing is needed for confirmation of TSWV infection (Daughtrey et al., 1997).

      Uncertainties:

      The host status of Calibrachoa sp. to TSWV and the symptoms of the infected plants.

      The ability of TSWV to systemically infect some Petunia sp. and Calibrachoa sp. varieties.

      Evidence that the commodity can be a pathway Unrooted cuttings of Petunia/Calibrachoa can be infected by TSWV and/or infested by viruliferous thrips.
      Surveillance information There are no targeted surveys for TSWV in Guatemala.

      A.8.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.8.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      TSWV is transmitted by thrips and Frankliniella occidentalis, its most efficient vector species (REF) is present in GA (EPPO GD; online) and widespread in field-grown crops and weeds (Porres, 2008). TSWV, although not reported in Guatemala, is present in all surrounding countries (EPPO GD, online) and worldwide, therefore it is highly impossible not to be present in Guatemala. Having a large host range, a high number of vegetables, ornamentals and weeds (also perennial) are hosts (EPPO GD, online).

      Therefore, hosts and vectors are expected to be present and possibly widespread in Guatemala. The main pathway of entrance of TSWV from the surrounding environment in the nursery is through viruliferous thrips. Defect in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable whitefly to enter, as well as hitchhiking aphids on persons or materials entering the greenhouse.

      Uncertainties:
      • Presence of defects in the greenhouse structure.
      • Infection (virus) and infestation (thrips vectors) pressure in the surroundings.
      • Presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.

      A.8.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Plant material (cuttings) for Petunia sp. and Calibrachoa sp. mother plants used for the production of unrooted cutting originate from the Netherlands, Germany, El Salvador and Israel. TSWV is present in the EU and in Israel (EPPO GD) and possibly in El Salvador (due to its worldwide distribution). In the EU countries a certification scheme is in place for Petunia/Calibrachoa which includes TSWV. Although the details for the certification systems in the non-EU countries are not known, a percentage of incoming mother plants are tested in the nursery for TSWV at the start of the production (Dossier, Section 4.0).

      Other solanaceous and non-solanaceous plants are produced in the same nursery and their cultivation rotates within the nursery greenhouses/compartments. No data are provided for the identity, proportion, origin and phytosanitary status of other than Petunia/Calibrachoa plants produced in the same nursery.

      Uncertainties:
      • The detail of the Petunia/Calibrachoa certification schemes in the non-EU countries.
      • The proportion of Petunia/Calibrachoa mother plants coming from non-EU countries.
      • The origin and the host status for TSWV and the phytosanitary status of other plant species (solanaceous, non-solanaceous) entering the same nursery.
      • The phytosanitary requirements for imports into Guatemala.

      A.8.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      Petunia sp. and Calibrachoa sp. are cultivated in compartments dedicated for their cultivation with no other plant species. However, other plants (solanaceous and non-solanaceous) possible hosts of TSWV are cultivated and thrips could be present in other greenhouses/compartments of the nursery. Frankliniella occidentalis is the most efficient vector of TSWV and a major pest of ornamentals, practically feeding in almost any flower plant (Daughtrey et al., 1997; CABI). Viruliferous thrips could spread TSWV between the different or within the same greenhouse/compartment. TSWV may also spread by vegetative propagation of infected mother plants. There are strict hygiene conditions inside the nursery however, thrips due to their minute size are more difficult to observe and easier to escape these conditions than other insects.

      Uncertainties:
      • The presence and density of the TSWV and thrips in the nursery.
      • The presence and the host status for TSWV of other plant species (solanaceous, non-solanaceous) growing in the same nursery.

      A.8.3 Information from interceptions

      In the EUROPHYT/TRACES-NT database there are no records of interceptions of tomato spotted wilt virus on different commodities from third countries or on any other plant from Guatemala.

      A.8.4 Risk Mitigation Measure applied in the nurseries

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      Plants in the greenhouse are protected from thrips that may enter from the surrounding environment. Thrips may be introduced through defects in the greenhouse or as hitchhikers on greenhouse staff. Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      • Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Same unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia and Calibrachoa are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of TSWV.

      Uncertainties:

      Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment Y

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Evaluation:

      Metam-Sodium can kill (viruliferous) thrips pupating in the substrate.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Evaluation:

      TSWV is included in the EU certification schemes therefore, the material originated from the EU is expected to be free of symptoms and tested negative for TSWV.

      The material originated from non-EU countries (Israel and El Salvador) is certified, hence expected to comply with the respective phytosanitary legislation. If TSWV monitoring (inspections, testing) is included in the certification schemes, Petunia and Calibrachoa plants are expected to be free of symptoms and tested negative for TSWV.

      Uncertainties:

      The details of the certification schemes and if TSWV monitoring is included in the non-EU countries certification schemes.

      The phytosanitary status of the imported material from the non-EU countries.

      Crop rotation N The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined to the export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.
      Disinfection of irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of Sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whiteflies, shoreflies and other flying insects.

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of thrips and TSWV. However, TSWV infections are difficult to detect especially in low thrips infestation due to the local symptoms (necrotic local lesions) of Petunia (and possible of Calibrachoa) to TSWV infection. Especially in some varieties the developing local lesions are more difficult to visually detect than others. Traps can monitor flying thrips however, TSWV can be transmitted also by unnoticed nymphs that are also difficult to notice in low populations.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection especially for the detection of thrips nymphs.
      • The visibility of the necrotic local lesions produced on Petunia/Calibrachoa by TSWV.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 3.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides are effective against thrips. However, thrips are known for having developed resistance to some insecticides.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficacy and timing of the applied insecticide are not known.

      Sampling and testing Y

      Description:

      Petunia and Calibrachoa plants are laboratory tested using serological based techniques for viruses, including TSWV and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the lab each 6–8 weeks to test the virus.

      Evaluation: There are a lot of antibodies and/or serological techniques (immunostrips) available for the efficient TSWV detection. According to the dossier these viruses are included in the applied testing scheme, therefore most infections (if present) are expected to be detected. However, serological techniques may fail to detect low number of local lesions that may result in low virus concentration below the detection limit of the detection method.

      Uncertainties:

      The efficiency of serological techniques for the detection of TSWV in Petunia/Calibrachoa (local lesion host).

      Packing and handling procedures N

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber.

      The shipment of Petunia and Calibrachoa cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Official supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of thrips infestation however this may be difficult at low populations. However, once TSWV can be transmitted by a single thrips – even a nymph to more than one plant, some infections may occur before the development of a detectable thrips infesting population. Infected Petunia sp. and Calibrachoa sp. plants are expected to exhibit local symptoms difficult to be detected in some varieties and especially when low in numbers. This is especially important in large plants and high canopy densities that leaves with local lesions may be covered by the neighbouring healthy once and escape detection.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided.

      Evaluation:

      The surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of TSWV and its thrips vectors. However, no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of the surveillance scheme.

      A.8.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.8.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • TSWV has not been reported to infect Calibrachoa.
      • TSWV has not been reported on Petunia/Calibrachoa in Guatemala.
      • TSWV has never been intercepted on produce from Guatemala.
      • Low infection pressure (prevalence of host plants) of TSWV in the surrounding environment.
      • No infection pressure (prevalence of host plants) of TSWV in other greenhouses/compartments of the nursery.
      • Transfer of infected thrips from virus-sources (infected host plants) in the surrounding environment to the greenhouse plants is very difficult because of insect proof structure and its efficient inspection of the greenhouse and the strict hygienic measure in place preventing the natural and human-assisted movement of thrips.
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective and TSWV infected plants and thrips present in the nurseries are expected to be easily detected.

      – Application of the insecticides have a good efficacy against thrips and TSWV spread.

      – At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms can be detected with careful observation.

      – The inspection regime is effective (detection and treatment).

      – Physical separation of different lots offers in case of infestation the restriction of the affected plants.

      A.8.5.2 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      Even if there is no evidence that Calibrachoa is a host plant for TSWV, given their polyphagous nature especially among ornamentals it is likely that Calibrachoa is also a suitable host plant.
      • Solanaceous are very susceptible to TSWV infections.

      Petunia and Calibrachoa are preferable hosts for thrips.

      – High population pressure in highly preferred host (e.g. abandoned infected field of highly preferable host close to the greenhouse).
      • Presence of TSWV in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure or thrips hitchhike on greenhouse staff or materials.
      • Transmission of TSWV via vegetative propagated material increases the probability of their entry and establishment in the nursery on Petunia/Calibrachoa or other host plant species.
      • The major thrips species in ornamental nurseries is Frankliniella occidentalis that it is the most efficient vector of TSWV
      • Other thrips species vectoring TSWV are also present and widely distributed in Guatemala.

      – The insecticides treatments are moderately effective against thrips (insecticide resistance).

      – Considering their wide host range it is likely that host plants are present in the surrounding environment.

      – Presence of TSWV in the environment is not monitored.

      – Symptoms are not easy to be visually detected especially in low thrips infestation.

      – In some varieties local lesions produced by TSWV are not easy to distinguish from thrips feeding symptoms

      A.8.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      The value of the median is estimated based on:

      • TSWV infects many solanaceous species especially ornamentals therefore Calibrachoa is expected to be host also for TSWV.
      • Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. are a preferable host for thrips.
      • The major thrips species in ornamental nurseries is Frankliniella occidentalis that it is the most efficient vector of TSWV.

      – The protective effect of the greenhouse structure.

      – The insecticides treatments are moderately effective against thrips (insecticide resistance).

      – The high 27density of the mother plants in the nurseries before cutting prevents the detection of infected plants/leaves.

      – Petunia plants when infected by TSWV exhibit local lesions difficult to visually detect especially in high canopy densities.

      A.8.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile/interquartile range)

      • There is a low uncertainty about the protective effect of the greenhouse structure.

      A.8.6 Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for tomato spotted wilt virus

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.15) and pest freedom (Table A.16).

      TABLE A.15. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation by tomato spotted wilt virus per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 0 10 20 50 80
      EKE 0.0438 0.191 0.582 1.77 4.05 7.78 12.4 24.1 39.0 47.7 57.3 66.0 73.2 77.2 79.9
      • Note: The EKE results is the BetaGeneral (0.62241, 1.125, 0, 82) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.16.

      TABLE A.16. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of tomato spotted wilt virus per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.15.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9920 9950 9980 9990 10,000
      EKE results 9920 9923 9927 9934 9943 9952 9961 9976 9988 9992 9996 9998 9999.4 9999.8 10,000.0
      • Note: The EKE results are the fitted values.
      image

      FIGURE A .8 (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for tomato spotted wilt virus (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (c) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags.

      A.8.7 Reference list

      Chatzivassiliou, E. K., Boubourakas, I., Drossos, E., Eleftherohorinos, I., Jenser, G., Peters, D., & Katis, N. I. (2001). Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease, 85(1), 40–46.

      Daughtrey, M. L., Jones, R. K., Moyer, J. W., Daub, M. E., & Baker, J. R. (1997). Tospoviruses strike the greenhouse industry: INSV has become a major pathogen on flower crops. Plant Disease, 81, 1220–1230. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.11.1220

      EUROPHYT. (online). European Union Notification System for Plant Health Interceptions - EUROPHYT. https://food.ec.europa.eu/plants/plant-health-and-biosecurity/europhyt/interceptions_en

      Oliver, J. E., & Whitfield, A. E. (2016). The genus Tospovirus: Emerging bunyaviruses that threaten food security. Annual Review of Virology, 3(1), 101–124. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-100114-055036

      Robb, K., Parrella, M. P., & Neuman, J. P. (1988). The biology and control of the western flower thrips. Part 1. Ohio Florists' Association Bulletin, 699,2–5.

      Rotenberg, D., Jacobson, A. L., Schneweis, D. J., & Whitfield, A. E. (2015). Thrips transmission of tospoviruses. Current Opinion in Virology, 15, 80–89.

      Ruter, J., & Gitaitis, R. (1993). Impatiens necrotic spot virus in woody landscape plants in Georgia. Plant Disease,, 77, 318. https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-77-0318A

      Sanchez-Cuevas, M.-C., & Nameth, S. G. P. (2002). Virus-associated diseases of double petunia: frequency and distribution in Ohio greenhouses. HortScience, 37, 543–546.

      Wijkamp, I., van Lent, J., Kormelink, R., Goldbach, R., & Peters, D. (1993). Multiplication of tomato spotted wilt virus in its insect vector, Frankliniella occidentalis. The Journal of General Virology, 74, 341.

      Wijkamp, I., & Peters, D. (1993). Determination of the median latent period of 2 Tospoviruses in Frankliniella occidentalis, using a novel leaf disk assay. Phytopathology, 83, 986–991.

      Wijkamp, I., Almarza, N., Goldbach, R., & Peters, D. (1995). Distinct levels of specificity in thrips transmission of tospoviruses. Phytopathology, 85, 1069–1074.

      Wijkamp, I., Goldbach, R., & Peters, D. (1996). Propagation of tomato spotted wilt virus in Frankliniella occidentalis does neither result in pathological effects nor in transovarial passage of the virus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 81, 285–292.

      A.9 Bactericera cockerelli

      A.9.1 Organism information

      Taxonomic information

      Current valid scientific name: Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc, 1909)

      Synonyms: Trioza cockerelli (Šulc, 1909); Paratrioza cockerelli (Šulc, 1909)

      Name used in the EU legislation: Bactericera cockerelli

      Order: Hemiptera

      Family: Triozidae

      Common name: Tomato psyllid; potato psyllid

      Name used in the dossier: Bactericera cockerelli

      Group Insects
      EPPO code PARZCO
      Regulated status

      Quarantine pest for the EU, Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072, ANNEX II PART A.

      Special requirements for fruits of Solanaceae originating from third countries for their introduction into the Union territory. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072, ANNEX VII.

      EPPO A1 List

      Pest status in Guatemala Present, widespread (CABI, online; EPPO, online).
      Pest status in the EU No relevant as EU quarantine pest.
      Host status on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp

      Bactericera cockerelli is a pest of many plants of Solanaceae family but it has not been reported to feed either in Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. plants.

      Uncertainties: the host status of Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp to Bactericera cockerelli.

      PRA information Pest risk analysis on Bactericera cockerelli, the potato psyllid, has been prepared by EPPO. EPPO (2012) Final pest risk analysis for Bactericera cockerelli. EPPO, Paris.
      Other relevant information for the assessment
      Biology

      The potato psyllid is a small phloem-feeding insect (Horton et al., 2015). It is a polyphagous pest and its host range reaches the 40 plant species mainly from the Solanaceae family. It is polyvoltine, having more than one generation per year (CABI, online). Total adult longevity ranges from 21 to 97 days and females usually live more than males. Adult females lay from 200 to 400 eggs over their lifetime depending on the host plant (Abdullah, 2008; Yang and Liu, 2009). Larvae hatch after 5–8 days and nymphs undergo through five instars. The nymphal developmental time depends mainly on temperature and host plant and it is ranged from 19 to 24 days at 27°C (Abdullah, 2008; Yang and Liu, 2009). Females start laying their eggs 8–9 days after reaching adulthood and the oviposition periods is approximately 50 days (Yang and Liu, 2009). Potato psyllid is able to overwinter on natural vegetation as an adult (Jensen et al., 2012; Horton et al., 2015).

      Bactericera cockerelli is a good flyer and migrates annually primarily with wind and in this way it can be transported over long distances (EPPO, 2013; EPPO, 2012). Adult migration is considered as the primary mechanism by which B. cockerelli arrives in agricultural crops (Glick, 1939; Papp and Johnson, 1979). The eggs are deposited singly mainly on the upper or lower surface of leaves, usually near the leaf edge while some eggs can be found in other parts of host plants. After larvae hatching the young nymphs search for a suitable place to feed. Nymphs are found mostly on the lower surface of leaves and usually remain sedentary during their development. The nymphs prefer sheltered and shaded locations. Adults are active in contrast to nymphs. Nymphs and adults produce characteristic and large quantities of whitish excrement particles which adhere to foliage and fruits (EPPO, 2013). Bactericera cockerelli transmits ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' to solanaceous plants which is the causal agent of a serious disease called ‘Zebra chip disease’ (Nachappa et al., 2012).

      The adults are quite small, measuring about 2.5–2.75 mm long.

      Symptoms Main type of symptoms The above ground symptoms of plant infestation of B. cockerelli in potatoes and tomatoes are retarded growth, erectness of new foliage, chlorosis and purpling of new foliage with basal cupping of leaves, upward rolling of leaves throughout the plant, shortened and thickened terminal internodes resulting in rosetting, enlarged nodes, axillary branches or aerial potato tubers, disruption of fruit set and production of numerous, small and poor-quality fruits. Below ground the psyllid may cause excessive number of tiny misshapen potato tubers, production of chain tubers and early breaking of dormancy of tubers. Bactericera cockerelli is also associated with psyllid yellows disease of potato and tomato which may be caused by a toxin which associated with the feeding of psyllid nymphs They comprise spiky, chlorotic apical growth, mottling of leaves, curling of mid-veins, stunting of plants and fruit deformation in some cultivars. (EPPO, 2013; EFSA, 2019).
      Presence of asymptomatic plants No asymptomatic plants are known to occur. However, because eggs, nymphs and adults of the insect are very small their detection upon visual inspection may not be easy when low populations occur.
      Confusion with other pathogens/pests

      B. cockerelli nymphs may be confused with other psyllids.

      Bactericera cockerelli can be morphologically identified with the help of identification keys by Ossiannilsson (1992) and Carnegie et al. (2017).

      Host plant range

      Bactericera cockerelli is found mainly on plants within the family Solanaceae. The psyllid feeds and reproduces on a variety of cultivated and wild plant species including crop plants such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pepper (Capsicum annuum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena), and non-crop species such as nightshade (Solanum spp.), groundcherry (Physalis spp.) and matrimony vine (Lycium spp.).

      This species seems to feed on more species than those it can reproduce on. Adults have been collected from plants in numerous families, including Pinaceae, Salicaceae, Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Menthaceae and Convolvulaceae, but this is not an indication of the true host range of this psyllid (EPPO, 2013).

      What life stages could be expected on the commodity

      Eggs nymphs and adults may be present on host plants.

      No information for this pest on Petunia spp. or Calibrachoa spp. plants is available.

      Surveillance information There are no targeted surveys for B. cockerelli in Guatemala.

      A.9.2 Possibility of pest presence in the nursery

      A.9.2.1 Possibility of entry from the surrounding environment

      B. cockerelli is a pest of many species of Solanaceae and of other plant families and it is reported to be widespread in Guatemala. Given the wide host range of this pest it is possible that local populations of B. cockerelli may be present in the neighbouring environment. Flying adults of B. cockerelli, can enter the nursery from host plants that might be present in the surrounding environment. Defects in the insect proof structure of the production greenhouses could enable adults to enter.

      Uncertainties:
      • Presence of defect in the greenhouse structure.
      • Abundance of B. cockerelli in the surroundings.
      • Presence and distribution of host plants in the surroundings.

      A.9.2.2 Possibility of entry with new plants/seeds

      Mother plants used for the production of unrooted cutting originate from the Netherlands, Germany, El Salvador and Israel. B. cockerelli is present in El Salvador and adults could be associated with mother plants.

      Uncertainties:
      • The abundance of B. cockerelli in El Salvador.
      • The host status of B. cockerelli on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp.

      A.9.2.3 Possibility of spread within the nursery

      When present, flying adults searching for food sources can spread from infested host plants within the nursery.

      Uncertainties:
      • There are no uncertainties.

      A.9.3 Information from interceptions

      In the EUROPHYT database there are no records of interceptions of B. cockerelli on Petunia spp. and Calibrachoa spp. from third countries or on any other plant from Guatemala.

      A.9.4 Risk Mitigation Measure applied in the nurseries

      Risk reduction option Effect Y/N Evaluation and uncertainties
      Growing plants in isolation Y

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are produced in greenhouses. Greenhouses have double doors (‘sluice’) at entry, side walls and roof ventilation closed off with thrips proof netting (Ludvig Svensson Econet 1535), and internal physical separation between the different vaults of the greenhouses to limit the possible dispersion of pests. There are regular inspections of greenhouses to assure that all netting is in good shape. An internal tunnel connects all the buildings in the greenhouse to reduce the risk of external contamination.

      Evaluation:

      Plants in the greenhouse are protected from dispersing Bactericera cockerelli adults that may enter from the surrounding environment. Bactericera cockerelli adults may be introduced through defects in the greenhouse. Greenhouse staff is regularly checking the integrity of the netting.

      Uncertainties:

      • Presence of unnoticed defects in the greenhouse structure.

      Dedicated hygiene measures Y

      For accessing the greenhouse there is a double door system. Changing rooms and disinfection facility allow the personnel to wear dedicated boots and clothes before entering the greenhouse. There are dedicated tools used for each greenhouse unit. Same unit have a specific change a disinfection area.

      Petunia and Calibrachoa are produced in separate units.

      Evaluation:

      These measures could be effective in reducing the risk of introduction and/or spread of potato psyllid.

      Uncertainties:

      Is not known if there is an additional change and disinfection area before entering the Petunia/Calibrachoa production units.

      Soil treatment

      Ν

      Description:

      The substrates are composed by pumice and peat, mixed in a ratio of 85/15 (85% pumice and 15% peat). Metam-Sodium is used for the substrate disinfection between two cycles of production of the cuttings inside the greenhouses.

      Quality of source plant material Y

      Description:

      The plant material (in vitro tissue cultures and cuttings) used for mother plants, is imported from Germany, the Netherlands, El Salvador and Israel and are reported to be certified (See Section 17).

      Evaluation:

      Bactericera cockerelli is present in El Salvador and adults could be associated with mother plants.

      Uncertainties:

      The abundance of the species in El Salvador.

      Crop rotation N

      Description:

      The production plots for Solanaceae crops destined to the export are changing each season in the greenhouses to reduce the risk of infection with pathogens. Within the nursery there is a rotation scheme in place for Solanaceae plants.

      Disinfection of irrigation water N

      Description:

      A water disinfection system is in place to make the water free of pathogens, using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2).

      Pest monitoring and inspections Y

      Description:

      Yellow sticky traps are used to monitor thrips, whiteflies, shoreflies and other flying insects.

      Every week a scouting process takes place for abnormal growing symptoms in the crops. The scouting results are used to schedule the spray programme for the following weeks.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of Bactericera cockerelli adults.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection.

      Pesticide treatment Y

      Description:

      Fungicides, insecticides and acaricides are applied on weekly basis, following scouting inspections. Rotation among active substances (a.s.) is adopted to prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

      Details on the a.s. are reported in Table 9 (Section 3.0).

      Evaluation:

      The applied insecticides are effective against Bactericera cockerelli adults.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficacy of the applied insecticide and its timing is not known.

      Sampling and testing N

      Description:

      Petunia and Calibrachoa plants are laboratory tested using serological based techniques for viruses and bacteria in different plant production stages (arrival, propagation, production). Percentages of plants tested ranges from 0.5% to 10% according to the production stage. Before exports, around 25% of the bags containing unrooted cuttings are sampled as indicated in the digital export certificate. The samples are sent to the lab each 6–8 weeks to test the virus.

      Packing and handling procedures N

      Description:

      The unrooted cuttings are placed in plastic bags and stored in a cold chamber

      The shipment of Petunia and Calibrachoa cuttings from the company to the La Aurora International Airport is carried out in refrigerated containers.

      Official Supervision by NPPO Y

      Description:

      Inspectors from the Ministry of Agriculture perform inspections on a monthly basis using a random scouting procedure, looking for signs of pest and diseases. An inspection certificate is issued and stored at the nursery as a proof of hygiene status. Tests on collected samples are performed by official NPPO laboratories or laboratories approved by the NPPO.

      Evaluation:

      The monitoring can detect the presence of Bactericera cockerelli adults.

      Uncertainties:

      • The efficiency of monitoring and inspection is not known.

      Surveillance of production area Y

      Description:

      The NPPO includes the surrounding area of the production facility in its surveillance. No further details are provided.

      Evaluation:

      The surveillance in the area surrounding the nurseries could provide data on the presence and abundance of Bactericera cockerelli. However no specific data are available for the evaluation of the efficacy of the surveillance.

      Uncertainties:

      • The intensity and the design of surveillance scheme.

      A.9.5 Overall likelihood of pest freedom

      A.9.5.1 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably low number of infested consignments

      • Petunia and Calibrachoa spp are not a preferred host.
      • B. cockerelli has never been intercepted on produce from Guatemala.
      • Dispersal capacity of B. cockerelli adults is limited.
      • Low population pressure of B. cockerelli in the surrounding environment, due to the limited presence of preferred host plants.
      • Greenhouse structure is insect-proof and entrance is thus unlikely.
      • The scouting monitoring regime is effective, insects are expected to be easily detected because of the typical symptoms on leaves.
      • Application of the insecticides have a good efficacy against B. cockerelli.
      • At harvest and packing, cuttings with symptoms will be detected.
      • 25 cuttings per bag.

      A.9.5.2 Reasoning for a scenario which would lead to a reasonably high number of infested consignments

      • B. cockerelli is present throughout Guatemala and they have a wide host range, mainly solanaceous plant, therefore it is likely that host plants are present in the surrounding environment.
      • Greenhouses are located in areas where B. cockerelli is present and abundant (e.g. eggplant, potato).
      • Presence of B. cockerelli in the environment is not monitored.
      • It cannot be excluded that there are defects in the greenhouse structure.
      • Insecticide treatments are not targeting B. cockerelli.
      • 80 cuttings per bag.

      A.9.5.3 Reasoning for a central scenario equally likely to over- or underestimate the number of infested consignments (Median)

      • The protective effect of the greenhouse structure.
      • The insecticides treatments are effective.
      • There are no records of interceptions from Guatemala.

      A.9.5.4 Reasoning for the precision of the judgement describing the remaining uncertainties (1st and 3rd quartile/interquartile range)

      • The main uncertainty is the population pressure of B. cockerelli in the surrounding environment.

      A.9.6 Elicitation outcomes of the assessment of the pest freedom for potato psyllid

      The following Tables show the elicited and fitted values for pest infestation (Table A.17) and pest freedom (Table A.18).

      TABLE A.17. Elicited and fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of pest infestation by Bactericera cockerelli per 10,000 bags of unrooted cuttings.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Elicited values 0 3 6 13 60
      EKE 0.497 0.738 1.04 1.54 2.16 2.96 3.85 6.13 9.77 12.7 17.4 24.5 36.2 50.9 75.6
      • Note: The EKE results is the Lognorm (10.984, 16.334) distribution fitted with @Risk version 7.6.

      Based on the numbers of estimated infested bags of unrooted cuttings the pest freedom was calculated (i.e. = 10,000 – number of infested bags per 10,000). The fitted values of the uncertainty distribution of the pest freedom are shown in Table A.18.

      TABLE A.18. The uncertainty distribution of plants free of Bactericera cockerelli per 10,000 bugs of unrooted cuttings calculated by Table A.18.
      Percentile 1% 2.5% 5% 10% 17% 25% 33% 50% 67% 75% 83% 90% 95% 97.5% 99%
      Values 9940 9987 9994 9997 10,000
      EKE results 9924 9949 9964 9976 9983 9987 9990 9994 9996 9997.0 9997.8 9998.5 9999.0 9999.3 9999.5
      • Note: The EKE results are the fitted values.
      Details are in the caption following the image
      (A) Elicited uncertainty of pest infestation per 10,000 bags (containing 50 unrooted cuttings per bag) for Bactericera cockerelli complex (histogram in blue – vertical blue line indicates the elicited percentile in the following order: 1%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 99%) and distributional fit (red line); (B) uncertainty of the proportion of pest-free bags per 10,000 (i.e. = 1 – pest infestation proportion expressed as percentage); (C) descending uncertainty distribution function of pest infestation per 10,000 bags.

      A.9.7 Reference list

      Abdullah, N. M. M. (2008). Life history of the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in controlled environment agriculture in Arizona. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3(1), 060–067.

      CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). (online). Datasheet Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid). https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/10.1079/cabicompendium.45643

      Carnegie, M., Greenslade, A., & Ouvard, D. (2017). A simple key to the potential vectors of caLsol. Pest Organisms Threatening Europe. www.ponteproject.eu/factsheets-calsol/simplekey-potential-vectors-calsol

      EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), Loiseau, M., Schrader, G., Camilleri, M., Diakaki, M., & Vos, S. (2019). Pest survey card on Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. EFSA supporting publication, EN-1632.

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization), online. Bactericera cockerelli (PARZCO). https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PARZCO

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization), 2012. Final pest risk analysis for Bactericera cockerelli. EPPO, Paris.

      EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization), 2013. Bactericera cockerelli. EPPO Bulletin, 43(2), 202–208.

      EUROPHYT. (online). European Union Notification System for Plant Health Interceptio–s - EUROPHYT. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/plant_health_biosecurity/europhyt/index_en.htm

      Glick, P. A. (1939). The distribution of insects, spiders, and mites in the air. USDA Technical Bulletin, 673, 150.

      Horton, D. R., Cooper, W. R., Munyaneza, J. E., Swisher, K. D., Echegaray, E. R., Murphy, A. F., Rondon, S. I., Wohleb, C. H., Waters, T. D., Jensen, A. S. (2015). A new problem and old questions: potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest. American Entomologist, 61(4), 234–244.

      Jensen, A. S., Rondon, S. I., Murphy, A. F., & Echegaray, E. (2012). Overwintering of the potato psyllid in the Northwest on Solanum dulcamara. In: Proceedings of the 12th annual zebra chip reporting session, 30 Octob–r - 2 November 2012, San Antonio, TX, USA. 63–64.

      Nachappa, P., Shapiro, A. A., & Tamborindeguy, C. (2012). Effect ‘f ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacea'um' on fitness of its insect vector, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), on tomato. Phytopathology, 102(1), 41–46.

      Ossiannilsson, F. (1992). The Psylloidea (Homoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 26, Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 347 pp.

      Papp, R. P., & Johnson, J. B. (1979). Origins of psyllid fallout in the Central Sierra Nevada of California (Homoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 55, 95–98.

      TRACES-NT. (online). TRAde Control and Expert System. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/tracesnt

      Yang, X. B., & Liu, T. X. (2009). Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on eggplant and bell pepper. Environmental Entomology, 38(6), 1661–1667.

      A.10 Ralstonia solanacearum species complex

      A.10.1 Organism information

      Name of the organisms in the cluster

      Current valid scientific name: Ralstonia solanacearum

      Synonyms: R. Solanacearum phylotype II

      Name used in the EU legislation: Ralstonia solanacearum, (smith) Yabuuchi et al. emend. Safni et al. (RALSSL)

      Current valid scientific name: Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum

      Synonyms: R. Solanacearum phylotypes I and III

      Name used in the EU legislation: Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum, Safni et al. [RALSPS]

      Reasons for clustering: These two species belong to the same species complex and share many biological traits

      Group

      Order: Burkholderiales

      Family: Burkholderiaceae

      Species of the Ralstonia solananearum species complex

      Regulated status

      Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. emend. Safni et al. [RALSSL] is listed in Annex II/B of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072.

      Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum, Safni et al. [RALSPS] is listed in Annex II/A of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072.

      Host status on Petunia sp./Calibrachoa sp. Bacterium name Petunia/Calibrachoa host status Solanaceae host plants
      Ralstonia solanacearum Petunia hybrida and Calibrachoa sp. are listed as host plants (CABI 2020). Capsicum spp., Solanum spp., Datura stramonium.
      Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Experimental host Capsicum spp., Solanum spp.
      Uncertainties: Although R. pseudosolanacearum was not yet isolated from Petunia/Calibrachoa, it is probable that infection occurs in nature.
      Pest status in Guatemala

      Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum according to EPPO/CABI/Guatemala NPPO are present and widespread in Guatemala.

      The pest has been found in ornamental flower production facilities (EPPO, 2010), and intercepted in geranium imported from Guatemala into USA.

      Pest status in EU No relevant as EU quarantine pests.
      PRA information

      Available Pest Risk Assessments:

      – Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (EFSA PLH Panel, 2019).

      Other relevant information for the assessment